platelet inhibition may block the release of important growth factors, such as FGF, HGF, ILF, VEGF, PDGF, and serotonin, that play a role in www.selleckchem.com/products/abc294640.html HCC development and growth. Unfortunately, Sahasrabuddhe et al.’s epidemiological study did not provide data on the stratification of the protective effect according to the causes of CLD and HCC, hence lacking confirmation that the aspirin effect is selective for HBV-related liver disease. However, an antiviral activity of aspirin against HCV or other flaviruses has already been suggested, by way of COX-2 inhibition, and by way of the induction of Cu/Zn-SOD expression as well as direct antioxidant properties. COX-independent, platelet independent and antioxidant-independent protective effects of aspirin against liver injury have also been reported. Imaeda et al., using an acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury model, showed that low-dose aspirin inhibits inflammasome-mediated pathways, thereby reducing the transcription of inflammatory cytokines. Chemoprevention of cancer with aspirin is not a novel concept. It has been investigated in the setting of colorectal cancer through multiple cohort and case control studies, demonstrating benefit; however
two large randomized TAM Receptor inhibitor controlled trials (RCTs)[6, 7] that included more than 22,000 and 39,000 patients, respectively, did not show significant benefit in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Thus, a final judgment on the effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer prevention is still pending. Similarly, the evidence presented in Sahasrabuddhe et al.’s study is not robust enough to recommend the use of aspirin in the prevention of HCC. The strengths of the study included the statistical power from the large cohort with many events, the ability to separate
aspirin from nonaspirin NSAIDs, and the robustness of results to sensitivity analyses addressing protopathic bias and confounding by indication. Despite the striking results from this study as well as other studies providing support for biological plausibility, caution must be taken in their interpretation. There are several well-documented examples of the inability to reproduce associations from observational studies into clinical trial settings, including 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 the Women’s Health Study which was unable to detect a benefit of low-dose aspirin on cancer. In other words, observing that aspirin users are less likely to develop HCC than nonusers does not necessarily mean that giving aspirin to patients will reduce their likelihood of HCC. Several factors may underlie this discrepancy, including variability in study populations, dose and duration of intervention, and differential measurement. However, a fundamental challenge for observational studies is the opportunity for selection bias.