CA19-9, a biomarker that is clinically used to differentiate benign from malignant gastrointestinal disorders, is elevated in 45% of PCLD patients without proof of malignancy. CA19-9 is produced by cyst epithelium, and as a consequence high CA19-9 levels are present in cyst fluid.27 Other tumor markers such as CA-125, CEA, and alpha-fetoprotein may be elevated, although not in the range of CA19-9.28-30 The principle aim of treatment of PLD is to reduce symptoms by decreasing liver volume. Options buy 3-Methyladenine for the management include conservative management, invasive, or medical measures. Aspiration-sclerotherapy involves aspiration of a cyst followed by injection
of a sclerosing agent that causes destruction of the epithelial lining inhibiting fluid production.31, 32 The main indication for aspiration-sclerotherapy is a large symptomatic liver cyst. In PLD it is best to select a dominant
cyst that is likely to be responsible for the symptoms, usually the largest cyst (Figs. 1, 2). Most commonly, cysts with a diameter of >5 cm are good candidates for therapy. The technique involves puncture of the cyst with a 5 or 7 French catheter with an aspiration needle.33 After aspiration of the total content of the cyst, a sclerosing agent is injected and left in the cyst for a predetermined time (Supporting Information Table 1). In general, hepatic AZD5363 mw cysts do not communicate with the biliary tree. The value of routine use of contrast media remains to be determined. The most commonly used sclerosing agent is ethanol, but minocycline and tetracycline are also used. These latter agents destroy the cyst wall by the low pH that is created in the cyst.34, 35
The volume of ethanol used varies learn more from 10% to 25% of the volume of aspirated cyst fluid (Fig. 3). A literature review revealed 34 articles on 292 patients who had either solitary (50%) or multiple (50%) cysts. The main indications were pain or discomfort of the abdomen, abdominal mass, fullness, and early satiety. The diameter of the treated cysts was between 5 and 20 cm. The procedure was mostly performed in a single session, but some protocols used repeated procedures on consecutive days.36 The most common complication was pain during ethanol instillation, which was probably due to peritoneal irritation. The needle or catheter used did not influence outcome, nor did the duration of alcohol exposure. Cysts totally regressed in 22%, whereas partial regression occurred in 19%. Some 21% had recurrence of the treated cysts during follow-up, although most of these patients were free of symptoms. In the majority of patients, symptoms totally disappeared or a reduction of symptoms occurred (Supporting Table 1). Fenestration is a technique that combines aspiration and surgical deroofing of the cyst in a single procedure (Fig. 3).