β-hexosaminidase is a generally accepted marker for histamine release, and so provides a convenient means of estimating mast cell degranulation (16). When human mast cells were reacted with live trichomonads, β-hexosaminidase release increased as a function of number of trichomonads, and TCM promoted β-hexosaminidase release with an efficiency similar to that observed with 5 × 106 live trichomonads (Figure 3). Furthermore, when mast cells were incubated with TCM
for 6 h, IL-8 and TNF-α production increased more than with CM (Figure 4a,b). Because of the possibility that these cytokines were present in the TCM, we also examined the production of cytokine mRNAs and found that IL-8 and TNF-α mRNA levels in the mast Stem Cell Compound Library in vivo cells were also increased preferentially by exposure to TCM (Figure 4c). Neutrophils are known to play an important role in inflammatory responses by virtue of their ability to perform a series of effector functions that collectively represent a major mechanism of innate immunity against injury or infection. Neutrophil infiltration is thought to be primarily responsible for the cytological changes observed
in trichomoniasis (12,17). We investigated whether culture supernatants buy PLX4032 of mast cells incubated with TCM for 6 h (M-TCM) had chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Medium alone (C), culture supernatant of mast cell alone (M) and culture supernatant of mast cell activated with CM (M-CM) had similar chemotactic activities. M-TCM stimulated neutrophil migration in a concentration-dependent manner, and M-TCM was more effective at each concentration than the corresponding TCM concentration (Figure 5), indicating that mast cells may play a role in neutrophil migration. Adhesion of T. vaginalis
to VECs is a prerequisite for the establishment of infection and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of trichomoniasis (2,3,9). Kucknoor et al. (9) examined transcriptional changes during the initial stage of T. vaginalis adhesion to VECs and showed upregulation of genes related to inflammation, such as IL-8, MCP-1, COX-2 and FN. Until now, it has not been known how these inflammatory mediators influence the inflammation caused by T. vaginalis. selleck kinase inhibitor Therefore, the aim of this study was to see whether supernatants of human vaginal epithelium cells incubated with live T. vaginalis (TCM) influenced inflammatory cell migration and activity. We indeed found that such culture supernatants attracted mast cells and stimulated them to release of β-hexosaminidase and cytokines, which could subsequently induce neutrophil migration. Mast cells are key effectors of allergic inflammation in peripheral tissues. However, because of the discovery that they play a critical role in protection during acute infection, they are now considered as primary inducers of both innate and adaptive immune responses (10,18). Mast cells are generally present in mucosal tissues, which are continuously exposed to foreign antigens including pathogens and allergens (19).