Although significant progress has been made in establishing ecolo

Although significant progress has been made in establishing ecological consequences of EE exposure, these studies have focused largely on hydrologically simple systems that lack the complexity of urban

aquatic environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and biological effects of EEs across a large urbanized aquatic ecosystem. A multi-pronged study design was employed relying on quantitative determination of select EEs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and repeated biological monitoring selleck compound of wild-caught and caged fish for indications of endocrine disruption. Over three years, EEs were measured in aqueous samples Danusertib in vitro (n = 42 samples) and biological effects assessed in >1200 male fish across the 2000 km(2) aquatic ecosystems of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Chicago, IL Our study demonstrated that in addition to water reclamation plant (WRP) effluents, non-WRP sources contribute significant EE loads to the aquatic ecosystem. While resident and caged male fish responded with the induction of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin, an indicator of EE exposure, neither resident nor caged sunfish exhibited prevalent histopathological changes to their reproductive organs (i.e., intersex) that have been reported

in other studies. Vitellogenin induction was greater in spring than the fall and was not correlated with body condition factor, gonadosomatic index or hepatosomatic index. Exposure effects were not correlated with sites downstream of treated effluent discharge further affirming the complexity of sources and effects of EEs in urban aquatic ecosystems. selleck inhibitor (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“CoSi2-coated Si nanocrystals were fabricated as the floating gates for nonvolatile memory applications to improve the Si nanocrystal memory performance in terms of programming/erasing efficiency and retention time. Discrete CoSi2-coated Si

nanocrystals were formed by silicidation of Si nanocrystals on SiO2 and subsequent selective etching of unreacted metal cobalt over silicide. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor memories with CoSi2-coated Si nanocrystals and reference Si nanocrystals as floating gates were fabricated and characterized. Longer retention, larger charging capability and faster programming/erasing were observed in CoSi2-coated Si nanocrystal memory compared with Si nanocrystal memory. CoSi2 Fermi-level pinning of defect levels plays important role in the device performance enhancement.”
“Minimally invasive surgery represents one of the main evolutions of surgical techniques aimed at providing a greater benefit to the patient.

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