Most drug errors reported by clinical pharmacists in the United States did not result in patient harm; however, severe harm and death due to drug errors were reported. Drug error types, therapeutic categories, and clinical pharmacist interventions varied between
the inpatient and Trichostatin A in vitro outpatient settings. Nearly half of reported errors were prevented by clinical pharmacists before the drugs reached the patients. The majority of clinical pharmacist recommendations were accepted by prescribers.”
“ObjectiveSleep disordered breathing (SDB) in adults has been associated with a loss of nocturnal dipping in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, however, there have been limited studies in children. We measured BP non-invasively and continuously overnight in 105 children aged 7-12 with a range of severities of SDB and 36 non-snoring controls to examine nocturnal dipping profiles.\n\nStudy DesignChildren with SDB were divided into three
severity groups according to their obstructive apnea hypopnea index. Nocturnal dipping profiles across sleep stages were described both as a proportion of children exhibiting a 10% fall in systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) from wake to sleep and according to SAP sleep/SAP wake ratio as extreme dippers (ratio0.8), dippers (ratio<0.8 and 0.9), non-dippers (ratio<0.9 and 1.0), and reverse dippers (ratio>1.0).\n\nResultsThe mean fall in BP between wake and NREM 1/2, SWS, and REM sleep was not different between the groups and there were no differences
between the dipping profiles of children in each check details group.\n\nConclusionsSDB did not alter nocturnal dipping patterns of BP and HR compared to controls, a finding which may suggest that these young children have not been exposed to the effects of SDB long enough or that SDB severity was not great enough to affect nocturnal dipping profiles. However, further studies are required to determine if the elevated BP previously reported in this group of children will have long-term effects on the cardiovascular system. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:1127-1134. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“The Cl-amidine supplier physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during 2009, which was characterised by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to ca. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations rose in all tissues (branch, stem, root) until the end of July, except in needles, where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site.