The data on the calcium content of dairy products were taken from the Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO) . We took an average of different types of dairy products—including milk, yogurt, fresh cheese, and cheese—representing the common consumption pattern in the population for each of the three countries. For example in The Netherlands, extra 650 mg calcium per day equaled: 200 milliliter low-fat milk (=242 mg calcium) + 125 milliliter low-fat yogurt (=166 mg calcium) + 30 gram
young cheese (=237 mg calcium). These data were combined see more with country-specific unit cost prices of dairy products, Crenigacestat research buy derived from general market prices (September 2010 prices). To facilitate comparisons, we used the prices of national supermarkets (preferably the market leaders) rather than those of traditional shops. Finally, we arrived at total costs per day/year, representing the total additional costs if people with a low calcium intake Dibutyryl-cAMP cost raise their intake up to the recommended level by increasing their dairy foods consumption. The second main outcome of our model is the number of lost DALYs, which represent a widely-used
summary indicator of public health . DALYs are the sum of life years lost due to premature mortality and years lived with disability adjusted for severity. In other words, Acetophenone the basic formula for DALYs is: $$ \textDALY = \textYLL + \textYLD $$where:
YLL = years of life lost due to premature mortality; YLD = years of healthy life lost as a result of disability. The DALY measure was used to calculate the life years lost and the loss in quality of life due to hip fracture caused by low calcium intake (see Fig. 1). We used country- and age-specific mortality rates due to hip fracture. In this respect, it is important to distinguish between excess mortality rates, i.e. the proportion of the population suffering from a hip fracture that dies, and general population mortality, i.e. the proportion of the general population that dies due to hip fracture . Considering the data available, and for reasons of comparability between countries, we used the mortality rates after hip fracture in the general population. Sensitivity analyses We conducted sensitivity analyses to verify to what extent certain assumptions might have influenced the results. Plausible ranges of uncertain parameters were obtained from the published literature or by varying the estimates by a certain percentage in each direction. The following parameters were varied: (1) The relative risk expressing the relationship between a low calcium intake and the occurrence of hip fractures, and the proportion of the general population with a low calcium intake.