We investigated a case of simultanagnosia due to posterior cortical atrophy without structural brain damage who demonstrated an incomplete simultanagnosia. The patient successfully recognized a global stimulus in one trial but failed to do so just a few seconds later. Using event-related fMRI, we contrasted post hoc selected trials of successful global perception with trials of global recognition failure. We found circumscribed clusters of activity at the right and left primary intermediate sulci and a bilateral cluster at the ventral precuneus. The integration of multiple visual elements resulting in a conscious perception of their gestalt seems to rely on these bilateral structures in the human lateral
and medial inferior parietal cortex. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Doxorubicin is a commonly used chemotherapy limited by cardiotoxicity. Pirarubicin, derived from doxorubicin, selectively targets tumors when ACY-738 price encapsulated in styrene maleic acid (SMA), forming the macromolecular SMA pirarubicin. Selective targeting is achieved because of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. SMA-pirarubicin inhibits the growth of colorectal liver metastases, but tumor destruction is incomplete. The role played by the tumor microcirculation is uncertain. This study investigates the pattern of microcirculatory changes following SMA-pirarubicin treatment. Methods:
Liver metastases were induced in CBA mice using a murine-derived colon cancer line. SMA-pirarubicin
(100 mg/kg total dose) was administered intravenously in 3 separate doses. Twenty-four hours after chemotherapy, OTX015 the tumor microvasculature was examined using CD34 immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. Tumor perfusion and permeability were assessed using confocal in vivo microscopy and the Evans blue method. Results: SMA-pirarubicin reduced the microvascular index by 40%. Vascular occlusion and necrosis were extensive following treatment. Viable cells were arranged around tumor vessels. Tumor permeability was also increased. Conclusion: SMA-pirarubicin damages tumor cells and the tumor microvasculature and enhances tumor vessel permeability. However, tumor necrosis is incomplete, and the growth of residual cells is sustained by a microvascular network. Combined therapy with a vascular Selleck GSK872 targeting agent may affect residual cells, allowing more extensive destruction of tumors. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the ‘Repin’ picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). Eye movements and vision. New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions (‘Estimate the material circumstances of the family’); and (B) social instructions (‘Estimate how long the unexpected visitor has been away’).