Mouse Kupffer cells
and hepatocytes were isolated using the technique described by Kuboki et al.18 Cell staining was performed with antibodies against F4/80 (ab6640, Abcam, Cambridge, MA), Albumin (Bethyl Laboratories, Montgomery, TX), Ron (AF431, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), or isotype control antibodies. Mounting media contained DAPI for nuclear staining. THP-1 cells were purchased from the American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and were differentiated with 100 ng/mL phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). RNA was isolated using TriZol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). One μg of RNA was converted to complementary DNA (cDNA) with the high capacity RNA to cDNA kit according to manufacturer’s instructions (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Real-time PCR was performed using FastStart SYBR Green (F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Nutley, NJ). The following genes and corresponding sequences Carfilzomib in vitro were chosen: Ron (5′-TCCC ATTGCAGGTCTGTGTAGA-3′; 5′-CGGAAGCTG TATCGTTGATGTC-3′), β-glucuronidase (GusB) (5′-TTGAGAACTGGTATAAGACGCATCAG-3′; 5′-TCT GGTACTCCTCACTGAACATGC-3′). TNF-α (5′-CAT CTTCTCAAAATTCGAGTGACAA-3′;
5′-TGGGAG TAGACAAGGTACAACCC-3′), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) (5′-TGCACCCAAACCGAAGTCAT-3′; 5′-TTGTCAGAAGCCAGCGTTCAC-3′), HGFL (5′-TGGTACAGTGTTCAAGGGCTCTT-3′; 5′-GCATGG CTGCTCATG-3′), and EGR1 (5′-TCTTGG TGCCTTTTGTGTGAC-3′; 5′-CTCTTCCTCGTTT TTGCTCTC-3′). Expression levels were normalized to GusB as internal control. Relative gene
expression results are Depsipeptide purchase reported. Real-time analyses were repeated twice with similar results using samples from three independent isolations. Kupffer cells were plated in Williams E media supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Conditioned media was generated by replacing the Kupffer cell media with fresh media plus 500 μg/mL LPS (E. coli serotype 0111:B4; Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and collected at the timepoints indicated. For the cytokine array, conditioned media was collected and incubated with the mouse cytokine antibody array from R&D Systems. Detection of replicate spots is by horseradish peroxidase-based chemiluminescence and film. Adenosine Film was scanned and spots were quantitated using ImageJ from the National Institutes of Health. TNF-α levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (R&D Systems). Recombinant HGFL was supplied by R&D Systems. Twenty-four hours before LPS exposure, Kupffer cells or primary hepatocytes were transfected with an NF-κB reporter (pNF-κB luc) plasmid or an empty vector (pTAL luc), and a control plasmid expressing Renilla (pRL-TK) utilizing Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Kupffer cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/mL) in complete media for 2 hours. Hepatocytes were treated with 10 ng/mL of TNF-α for 6 hours. Cell lysates were collected and luciferase activity was determined using the Dual-Luciferase Assay System (Promega, Madison, WI). Samples were run in duplicate and averaged.