As-electrospun AIP/PVP nanofibers calcined at 800°C

had 6

As-electrospun AIP/PVP nanofibers calcined at 800°C

had 67.13% of C, 29.37% of O, and 3.5% of Al, and those calcined at 1,200°C had only 61.38% of O and 38.62% of Al, respectively. Figure 2 SEM images and diameter distributions. SEM images of as-electrospun PVP (a), as-electrospun AIP/PVP nanofibers (b), nanofibers calcined at 800°C (c) and 1,200°C (d). Diameter distributions (e). The inset shows EDX quantification. Figure 3 shows the XRD spectra of the alumina nanofibers calcined between 500°C and 1,200°C. There was also no distinct diffraction peak appearing for the samples calcined at 500°C and 600°C, and phase structure was found to be amorphous/microcrystalline. However, with the increase of calcination temperature up to 900°C, the typical peak of γ-Al2O3 was displayed with strong diffraction intensity. The γ-phase structure became weak when the temperature was buy 17DMAG above 1,000°C and completely disappeared at 1,100°C. The XRD spectrum of the sample calcined at 1,200°C ACY-241 mw indicated that α-alumina phase was formed. All the observed diffraction peaks matched well with those reported by Shanmugam et al. (JCPDS card no. 42-1468) [13]. From the above results, the phase transition of alumina nanofibers in this study can be shown as follows: amorphous/microcrystalline → γ-Al2O3 → α-Al2O3. In the process of heat treatment, the trihydroxide undergoes a series of transformation because of the water loss

from hydration. Figure 3 XRD spectra of alumina nanofibers. Calcined at 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C, and 900°C (a), and 900°C, 1,000°C, 1,100°C, and 1,200°C (b). Figure 4 shows the FT-IR spectra CB-5083 mw of the alumina fibers obtained after calcination of the composite fibers at 500°C to 1,200°C, AIP solution, AIP/PVP solution, and as-electrospun composite fibers. Three

characteristic peaks at 634, 581, and 440 cm−1 for alumina nanofibers calcined at 1,000°C, which it was confirmed α-phase alumina (Figure 4b), were observed, indicating Al-O bending and Al-O stretching. These peaks can be attributed to the presence of alumina; this conclusion is also supported Farnesyltransferase by results of the XRD analysis [13]. Figure 4 FT-IR spectra of alumina fibers. AIP solution, AIP/PVP solution, and as-electrospun AIP/PVP composite nanofibers (a), and alumina nanofibers calcined at different temperatures (b). The nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms and the corresponding pore size distribution of the synthesized alumina nanofiber calcined at 800°C and 1,200°C temperatures are shown in Figure 5. As observed in Figure 5a, both the isotherms were types IV and V, which were related to the mesoporous structure. However, the types of hysteresis loops were different from each other as the calcination temperatures changed. The hysteresis loop type of the alumina nanofiber calcined at 800°C and 1,200°C were H2 and H4 [20]. The surface area of two samples calcined at 800°C and 1,200°C were 177.8 and 42.7 m2/g.

Dev Comp Immunol 2008, 32:1063–1075 CrossRef 2 Burivong P, Patta

Dev Comp Immunol 2008, 32:1063–1075.CrossRef 2. Burivong P, Pattanakitsakul

SN, Thongrungkiat S, Malasit P, Flegel TW: Markedly reduced severity of Dengue virus infection in mosquito cell cultures persistently infected with Aedes albopictus RG7112 in vivo densovirus ( Aal DNV). Virology 2004, 329:261–269.PubMed 3. Tsai KN, Tsang SF, Huang CH, Chang RY: Defective interfering RNAs of Japanese encephalitis virus found in mosquito cells and correlation with persistent infection. Virus Res 2007, 124:139–150.PubMedCrossRef 4. Flegel TW: Update on viral accommodation, a model for host-viral interaction in shrimp and other arthropods. Dev Comp Immunol 2007, 31:217–231.PubMedCrossRef 5. Flegel TW, Sritunyalucksana selleck chemicals llc K: Shrimp molecular responses to viral pathogens. Marine Biotechnol 2010, in press. 6. Henchal EA, Gentry MK, McCown JM, Brandt WE: Dengue virus-specific and flavivirus group determinants identified with monoclonal

antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1982, 31:830–836.PubMed Authors’ contributions N Kanthong participated in the study design and the cell culture work, did the immunohistochemistry work, drafted C646 in vitro the original manuscript and assisted in manuscript completion. N Khemnu participated in the cell culture work. SP and PM participated in the study design and interpretation of the results. TWF conceived the study, participated in the design and coordination and took major responsibility for writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The interplay between the bacterial assemblages in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the intestinal epithelium (microbial-epithelial “”crosstalk”")

is an important determinant of host health and nutritional status. The interactions between pathogens and enterocytes activate signaling pathways that trigger disruption of the cytoskeleton and the tight junctions that link epithelial cells, alter expression of proinflammatory molecules, and stimulate secretion of fluid and electrolytes [1–4]. In contrast, members of the commensal gut flora that are considered as beneficial increase resistance to pathogens by modulating the host immune system and increase secretory IgA [5] upregulate expression of genes coding for mucin-2 (MUC-2) Bay 11-7085 and human beta defensin-2 expression [6, 7], compete with enteric pathogens for adhesion sites and nutrients [8], and produce bacteriocins [9, 10]. Moreover the interactions between bacteria and enterocytes can elicit the synthesis of heat shock proteins [11], which up-regulate the activity of enterocyte glucose transporters [12] and modulate the activity of Na+/H+ exchangers [13]. The influences of pathogens and beneficial bacteria on epithelial cells can be mediated by direct bacteria-cell contacts or indirectly via bacterial metabolites, such as toxins from pathogens [e.g., cholera toxin, E.

Euro Jnl of Applied Mathematics 2009, 20:1–67 CrossRef 20 Chen W

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S-i: Self-assembled nanocomposite structure of Si-Au system formed by liquid phase epitaxy. J Cryst Growth 1997, 181:304–307.CrossRef 29. Ruffino F, Canino A, Grimaldi MG, Giannazzo F, Roccaforte F, Raineri V: Kinetic mechanism of the thermal-induced self-organization of Au/Si nanodroplets on Si(100): size and roughness evolution. J Appl Phys 2008, 104:024310(1)-024310(7).CrossRef 30. AbuWaar ZY, Zhiming MW, Lee JH, Salamo GJ: Observation of Ga droplet formation on (311)A and (511)A GaAs surfaces. Nanotechnology 2006, 17:4037–4040.CrossRef 31. Lei G, Yusuke H, Ming-Yu L, Jiang W, Sangmin S, Sang-Mo K, Erastin manufacturer Eun-Soo K, Zhiming M, Wang J, Jihoon L, Gregory J, Salamo J: Observation of Ga metal droplet formation on photolithographically patterned GaAs (100) surface by droplet epitaxy. IEEE Trans Nanotechnol 2012, 11:985–991.CrossRef 32. Jihoon L, Zhiming W, Yusuke H, Eun-Soo K, Namyoung K, Seunghyun P, Cong W, Salamo GJ: Various configurations of In nanostructures on GaAs (100) by droplet epitaxy. Cryst Eng Comm 2010, 12:3404–3408.CrossRef 33. Lee JH, Wang ZM, Black WT, Kunets VP, Mazur YI, Salamo GJ: Spatially localized formation of InAs quantum dots on shallow patterns regardless of crystallographic directions. Adv Funct Mater 2007, 17:3187.CrossRef 34.

Plant Physio 1998, 117:979–987 CrossRef 34 Arnold AE, Henk DA, E

Plant Physio 1998, 117:979–987.CrossRef 34. Arnold AE, Henk DA, Eells RL, Lutzoni F, Vilgalys R: Diversity and phylogenetic affinities of foliar fungal endophytes in loblolly pine inferred by culturing and environmental PCR. Mycologia 2007, 99:185–206.PubMedCrossRef 35. Jang SW, Hamayun M, Kim HY, Shin DH, Kim KU, Lee IJ: Effect of elevated nitrogen levels on endogenous gibberellins and jasmonic acid contents find more of three rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

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Locations of the populations collected in this study in Croatia a

Locations of the populations collected in this study in Croatia and neighboring countries. Names of locations

are given in Table 1. Figure 3 Individual and mixed infections by secondary symbionts in B. tabaci populations collected in this study. 10 populations from Croatia were tested, and two additional populations from Israel were selleck kinase inhibitor tested for comparison. Each box represents one population. Vertical columns represent the different symbionts tested as indicated in the base of each column, and each horizontal column represents one individual that was tested for the presence of the six different symbionts. Gray shading represent positive infection with the tested symbiont. The geographical origin of the population, the biotype and the number of individuals tested are indicated at the top of each box. (R) Rickettsia, (H) Hamiltonella, (A) Arsenophonus, (W) Wolbachia, (C) Cardinium, (F) Fritschea. T. vaporariorum distribution and infection by secondary symbionts Fourteen T. vaporariorum populations were collected across Croatia’s coastal and continental regions as well as from neighboring Bosnia and Herzegovina and tested for the presence of secondary symbionts. T. vaporariorum

was much more prevalent than B. tabaci in most of the KU55933 in vivo regions, sometimes with heavy infestations in agricultural crops. P. aleyrodidarum, the primary symbiont, was detected in all individuals tested. Out of the six secondary symbionts tested in the collected T. vaporariorum populations, only GSK461364 concentration Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were detected (Figure 4). Arsenophonus was more prevalent than Hamiltonella: it appeared in 71% of

all individuals tested Methane monooxygenase (107/150), as a single infection in 37% of all individuals, while the latter was detected in 40% of all individuals, and appeared as a single infection in 6% of all individuals (Figure 4). The prevalence of Arsenophonus was always higher or equal to that of Hamiltonella in all populations tested except for the population from the island Brac. Two of the populations tested were not infected with Hamiltonella (Pula and Turanj) and one population showed fixation of both symbionts (Metkovic); 34% (51/150) of all individuals tested were doubly infected with Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella (Figure 4). Figure 4 Individual and mixed infection by secondary symbionts in T. vaporariorum populations collected in this study. (14 populations were tested). See legend to Figure 3. Localization of secondary symbionts in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum None of the controls used with the samples submitted to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed any signal (data not shown).

Phys Rev B 1989, 39:1120 CrossRef 45 Gao KH, Zhou WZ, Zhou YM, Y

Phys Rev B 1989, 39:1120.CrossRef 45. Gao KH, Zhou WZ, Zhou YM, Yu G, Lin T, Guo SL, Chu JH, Dai N, Gu Y, Zhang YG, Austing DG: Magnetoresistance in high-density two-dimensional electron gas confined in InAlAs/InGaAs quantum well. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 94:152107.CrossRef 46. Hang DR, Liang C-T, Juang JR, Huang T-Y, Hung WK, Chen YF, Kim G-H, Lee J-H, Lee J-H: Electrically detected and microwave-modulated Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in an Al 0.4 Ga 0.6 N/GaN heterostructure. J Appl Phys 2003, 93:2055.CrossRef 47. Juang JR, Huang T-Y, Chen T-M, Lin selleck chemical M-G, Lee Y, Liang

C-T, Hang DR, Chen YF, Chyi J-I: Transport in a gated Al 0.18 Ga 0.82 N/GaN electron system. J Appl Phys 2003, 94:3181.CrossRef 48. Chen JH, Lin JY, Tsai JK, Park H, Kim G-H, Youn D, Cho HI, Lee EJ, Lee JH, Liang C-T, Chen YF: Experimental evidence for Drude-Boltzmann-like transport in a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. J Korean Phys Soc 2006, 48:1539. 49. Cho KS, Huang T-Y, Huang CP, Chiu YH, Liang C-T, Chen YF, Lo I: Exchange-enhanced click here g-factors in an Al 0.25 Ga 0.75 N/GaN two-dimensional electron system. J Appl Phys 2004, 96:7370.CrossRef 50. Cho KS, Liang C-T, Chen YF, Tang YQ, Shen B: Spin-dependent photocurrent

induced by Rashba-type spin splitting in Al 0.25 Ga 0.75 N/GaN heterostructures. Phys Rev B 2007, 75:085327.CrossRef 51. Lin S-K, Wu KT, Huang CP, Liang C-T, Chang YH, Chen YF, Chang PH, Chen NC, Chang C-A, Peng HC, Shih CF, Liu KS, Lin TY: Electron transport in In-rich In x Ga 1-x N films. J Appl Phys 2005, 97:046101.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions STL and YTW performed the experiments. GS and SDL prepared the devices. YFC and CTL coordinated the project. STL, JPB, and CTL drafted the paper. All the authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.”
“Background Researches regarding polymer-metal and polymer-inorganic multicomponent hybrid composites such as polyaniline/silver (PANI/Ag), poly(ethylene oxide)/aurum (PEO/Au), PANI/Fe3O4, etc.

have attracted much attention during the last two decades due to their large potential applications in the fields of electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding [1–3], ifoxetine energy storage devices [4–6], catalysis [7–9], and sensors [10–14]. These hybrid composites show better chemical and physical properties than bulk materials. Among various polymers, PANI as a versatile conducting polymer is usually selected to compound with noble metals or inorganic particles owing to its easy GSK872 chemical structure preparation, anticorrosion, and the low cost of raw material. Recently, Kamchi et al. [3] have elaborated serials of camphor-doped PANI/FeNi nanoparticle-based EMI shielding composites. The maximum conductivity value of 104 S m-1 and the shielding effectiveness (SE) of 90 dB of the prepared multilayer composites have been detected over the frequency band of 8 to 18 GHz.

A remarkable feature of evolution of phylogroup 1 Pav is the extr

A remarkable feature of evolution of phylogroup 1 Pav is the extremely fluid nature of their T3SE repertoires. Like other

phylogroup 1 strains, the frequency of T3SE acquisition is extremely high, with 27 T3SEs acquired since it diverged from the common ancestor of the group. However, the rate of T3SE loss is much higher than has been documented for any other P. syringae strain. A total of twelve Pav BP631 T3SEs are inferred to be non-functional. IPI-549 cell line By comparison, the strain with the second most T3SE pseudogenes is Pto DC3000 with seven [16]. All of the pseudogenization events in Pav BP631 appear to have happened since it diverged from Pmp 302280 and Pan 302091. Indeed, seven of them involve T3SEs that were acquired since this divergence, meaning that they were either acquired as nonfunctional genes or that they became pseudogenes after acquisition. The frequency of T3SE gain and loss is much lower in the phylogroup 2 Pav strains, with six and five gains for Pav Ve013 and Pav Ve037 respectively since they diverged from other phylogroup

2 strains. This is typical of the phylogroup as a whole, with three other strains that have acquired six or less T3SEs and the largest number of T3SE gains being twelve in Ppi 1704B. Two of the Pav BP631 T3SE putative pseudogenes, avrE1 and hopM1, are notable because they are located in the CEL, which is present in all P. syringae strains with canonical hrp/hrc type III secretion systems. AvrE1 is essential for virulence in some P. syringae strains [28], but is functionally redundant with HopM1 in Pto DC3000, where it suppresses salicylic acid-mediated immunity [29]. Frameshift mutations and truncations are common in hopM1, including in Pph 1448A [8], P. syringae pv.

Reverse transcriptase aptata DSM 50252 [4] and Pto T1 [10]. To date, all sequenced strains have had intact avrE1 genes, except for Psv 3335 [15], which has a contig break in the gene and Por 1_6, which has a premature stop codon, but has an intact hopM1 gene [14]. Homologs of avrE are also present in a number of other plant pathogens, including Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea stewartii, where it is essential for virulence [30–32]. Since P. syringae mutants lacking both of these T3SEs have strongly impaired virulence [33] it is unclear how Pav BP631 is able to establish infection without functional copies of either gene. It is possible that HopR1 [34] or TPX-0005 research buy another uncharacterized T3SE compensate for the loss of AvrE and HopM1 in hazelnut. Alternatively, a low level of translation might be initiated off the highly-atypical GTA start codon in avrE[23] or another in-frame start codon might be used, though this would be likely to have drastic effects on the N-terminal secretion signal and there are no other obvious candidates for ribosome binding sites. Of the twelve putatively non-functional T3SEs in Pav BP631, four have intact homologs in phylogroup 2 Pav.

2006; Hesselius 2007; Koopmans et al 2008) Revealing characteri

2006; Hesselius 2007; Koopmans et al. 2008). Revealing characteristics of employees at risk of long-term absence is important in order to reduce sickness absence, work disability and unemployment. Occupational health interventions may increase the probability of returning to work and limit economic and social deprivation associated with long-term absence. However, the impact of risk factors or interventions may vary across different stages of the sickness absence. Therefore it is important to gain insight into the time process of return to work

(Joling et al. 2006). In research on time to onset of sickness absence and the duration of sickness absence episodes, Cox proportional hazards models I-BET-762 in vivo are widely used (Cheadle et al. 1994; Krause et al. 2001; Joling et al. 2006; Lund et al. 2006; Christensen et al. 2007; Blank et al. 2008). However, Cox proportional hazards models do not address the shape of the baseline hazard. The hazard is the risk of an event, for example the risk of onset of long-term sickness absence. The baseline hazard can be interpreted as the hazard function for the average individual in the sample. In Cox models, the functional form

of the baseline hazard is not given, but is determined from the data. However, the course of sickness absence and reintegration cannot be understood without knowing the baseline hazard function. One way to understand the baseline hazard Uroporphyrinogen III synthase function is to specify it. For instance, it can be hypothesized that with increasing absence duration the probability of returning to work decreases in a certain pattern (Crook and Moldofsky 1994). Although Cox models leave the baseline hazard unspecified, duration dependence can be

imposed. For instance, one may assume that the baseline hazard remains constant in time or varies exponentially with time (see e.g. Bender et al. 2005). However, parametric models are preferred when time in itself is considered a meaningful independent variable and the researcher wants to be able to describe the nature of time-dependence. Different types of parametric models can be distinguished, depending on the type of time dependence of the hazard rate (Blossfeld and Rohwer 2002), as shown in Fig. 1. In Anlotinib in vitro exponential models, the hazard rate is assumed to be constant. Weibull models assume a hazard function that is a power function of duration. Log-logistic models permit non-monotonic hazard functions in which hazard rates can increase and then decrease or vice versa. Log-normal models are quite similar to log-logistic models, though the distribution of the error term is specified to be standard normal. Gompertz–Makeham models assume the hazard rate to be an exponential function of duration times. Fig. 1 Different parametric models for time-dependency of the hazard rate The impact of risk factors or interventions may vary in different stages of sickness absence (Krause et al. 2001).

CrossRef 19 Filatova EO, Sokolov AA, Kozhevnikov IV, Taracheva E

CrossRef 19. Filatova EO, Sokolov AA, Kozhevnikov IV, Taracheva EY, Braun W: Investigation

of the structure of thin HfO 2 films by soft x-ray reflectometry techniques. J Phys Condens Matter 2009, 21:180512.CrossRef 20. Chen B, Jha R, Misra V: Work function tuning via interface dipole by ultrathin reaction find more layers using AlTa and AlTaN alloys. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 2006, 27:731.CrossRef 21. Ramo D-M, Gavartin J-L, Shluger A-L: Spectroscopic properties of oxygen vacancies in monoclinic HfO 2 calculated with periodic and embedded cluster density functional theory. Phys Revi B 2007, 75:205336.CrossRef 22. Takeuchi H, Ha D, King T-J: Observation of bulk HfO 2 defects by spectroscopic ellipsometry. this website J Vac Sci Technol A 2004, 22:1337.CrossRef 23. She M, King T-J: Impact of crystal size and tunnel dielectric on semiconductor nanocrystal memory performance. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 1934, 2003:50. 24. Lwin ZZ, Pey KL, Zhang Q, Bosman M, Liu Q, Gan CL, Singh PK, Mahapatra S: Study of charge distribution and charge loss in dual-layer click here metal-nanocrystal-embedded high-κ/SiO 2 gate stack. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 100:193109.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions RT carried out the experiments studied on the device fabrication and drafted the manuscript. KH designed the research programs and guided the experiment’s progress. HL, CL, ZW, and JK participated in the mechanism development. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”

Self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) have been widely investigated due to their applications Pazopanib molecular weight in a variety of optoelectronic devices. High-density QD-based structures are usually needed for devices like lasers and solar cells [1–5], while low-density QD-based structures are preferred for devices such as single-photon sources [6]. Due to the great effects of growth kinetics on QDs’ density and size, both high- and low-density QDs may be acquired by choosing suitable growth techniques and carefully tuning growth conditions. In fact, high-density QDs can be acquired quite easily by the Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) growth mode despite of random QDs’ nucleation and size distribution [7, 8]. However, low-density QDs are relatively harder to acquire. Still several approaches have been developed to obtain low-density QDs structures by extremely low growth rate or precise control of the coverage close to the onset of two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) transition [9, 10]. Additionally, some novel approaches such as modified droplet epitaxy [11, 12] and pre-patterning by electron beam lithography combined with etching techniques [13, 14] are also used to grow low-density QDs. Nevertheless, the growth conditions for low-density QDs structures are accordingly very different from those for high-density QDs structures.

This is one important reason why statistical experimental design

This is one important reason why statistical experimental design is needed. Design of experiments (DOE) originated as a method to maximize the knowledge gained from experimental data. Compared with conventional methods, multivariate approaches based on DOE allow studying all possible interactions between experimental variables and can significantly reduce the experimental effort needed

to investigate the experimental factors and their interactions. These methods are especially valuable for optimization of chemical processes. The examples of application of multivariate DOE include using MODDE 6 software for optimization of supercritical fluid extraction, conditions for the SYN-117 in vitro extraction of indole alkaloids from the dried leaves of Catharanthus roseus, and GC/MS-based analysis of amino acids and organic

acids in rat brain tissue samples [9, 10]. Only a few reports discussing the chemometrics JPH203 approach in rational design of MIPs have appeared. Thus, Kempe and Kempe [11] ABT-888 employed multivariate data analysis (MODDE 6.0 software, Umetrics, Umea, Sweden) for the optimization of monomer and cross-linker ratios in the design of a polymer specific for propranolol. Mijangos et al. [12] used chemometrics (MODDE 6.0 software, Umetrics, Sweden) to optimize several parameters such as concentration of initiator (1,1′-azobis(cyclohexane-1-carbonitrile) and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) and polymerization time required for

the design of high-performance MIP for ephedrine. Phospholipase D1 In the present work, we demonstrate the use of the multivariate DOE approach and MODDE 9.0 software (Umetrics, Sweden) for increasing the yield of MIP nanoparticles synthesized in the automatic photoreactor developed by our team. Methods Reagents and materials N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide, ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate, 3-aminopropyltrimethyloxysilane (APTMS), fluorescein O-methacrylate, and acetone were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK. Acetonitrile was obtained from Fisher Scientific (Bromborough, UK). N,N-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester was obtained from TCI Europe (Boerenveldseweg 6, 2070 Zwijndrecht, Belgium). Vancomycin was chosen as the model template in solid-phase synthesis of MIP nanoparticles. All chemicals and solvents were of analytical or HPLC grade and were used without further purification. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was prepared from PBS buffer tablets (Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK) and comprised 0.01 M phosphate buffer, 0.0027 M potassium chloride, and 0.137 M sodium chloride, with pH 7.4, at 25°C. Where necessary, the pH of the buffer was adjusted to pH 7.2 by the addition of HCl. Preparation of template-derivatized glass beads Glass beads (75-μm diameter from Sigma-Aldrich) were activated by boiling in 4 M NaOH for 10 min, then washed with double-distilled water followed by acetone, and dried at 80°C.