In this technical note, we demonstrate that by making alternative

In this technical note, we demonstrate that by making alternative design decisions in the CPU implementation, an additional speedup can be obtained, again of an order of magnitude. By carefully considering memory access locality when dividing the workload among blocks of threads, the CPU’s cache is used more efficiently, making more effective use of the available memory bandwidth. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In relapsed germ cell tumors, salvage chemotherapy with paclitaxel,

Barasertib ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP) is a well-established regimen for patients with favorable features such as a primary testicular tumor and prior complete remission (CR) after the initial chemotherapy. We

reviewed patients who had received salvage TIP chemotherapy, and evaluated the efficacy of TIP, linking it to patient characteristics. Patients and Methods: Between August 1998 and May 2009, a total of 14 patients were treated with salvage TIP chemotherapy. 10 of 14 had cisplatin-refractory disease, and none of the patients were expected to show a favorable outcome to conventional-dose salvage chemotherapy. Results: Of the 14 patients, 5 (37.5%) showed a favorable response (CR in 1 patient, partial response (PR) in 4 patients) to TIP alone, and 1 had CR with subsequent surgery after TIP. 2 patients with CR and another 2 patients SNX-5422 nmr who attained disease stabilization are still alive at 81.3, 25.4, 69.3, and 27.4 months, respectively. After a median follow-up of 41.0 months (range 11.1-137.6), the median overall survival time for all patients was 21.1 (range 5.0-112.6). Conclusions: Even in the presence of poor prognostic features, salvage TIP chemotherapy can be an active regimen in

patients with relapsed or refractory germ cell tumors.”
“The ability to encode and maintain the exact order of short sequences of stimuli or events is often crucial Z-DEVD-FMK mw to our ability for effective high-order planning. However, it is not yet clear which neural mechanisms underpin this process. Several studies suggest that in comparison with item recognition temporal order coding activates prefrontal and parietal brain regions. Results of various studies tend to favour the hypothesis that the order of the stimuli is represented and encoded on several stages, from primacy and recency estimates to the exact position of the item in a sequence. Different brain regions play a different role in this process. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has a more general role in attention, while the premotor cortex is more involved in the process of information grouping. Parietal lobe and hippocampus also play a significant role in order processing as they enable the representation of distance. Moreover, order maintenance is associated with the existence of neural oscillators that operate at different frequencies.

After 6 weeks of 0 9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity

After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing

protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT 2 R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently Pexidartinib research buy to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR. Journal of Endocrinology (2011) 209,

“Objective: Perception of verticality can be perturbed after cortical stroke. However, a relationship between lesion location and pathologic perception of verticality is still a matter of debate since

previous studies revealed contradictory results. SB273005 research buy Thus, the aim of the current study was to test whether specific cortical lesions were associated with tilts of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and to determine the critical brain areas that cause such tilts in the case of a lesion.\n\nMethods: SVV was systematically studied PXD101 in vivo in 54 patients (22 patients with left-sided and 32 patients with right-sided lesions) with acute unilateral strokes, analyzed by modern voxel-wise lesion-behavior mapping techniques.\n\nResults: The data give evidence for an association between tilt of SVV and the insular cortex (IC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in both hemispheres. Whereas the IC seems to be the prominent structure in the left hemisphere, the IFG is most affected in the right hemisphere. Furthermore, other cortical regions such as the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the rolandic operculum as well as-subcortically-the inferior occipitofrontal fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle seem to be involved in the vestibulo-cortical network for the perception of verticality in the roll plane.\n\nConclusion: Damage to these regions might lead to an imbalance within the vestibular network of one hemisphere due to a deficit in multimodal signal processing. Neurology (R) 2012;78:728-735″
“The aim of this review is to summarize the physiological and pharmacological aspects of ghrelin.

0001) by 70% After an initial increase lasting for about 4 days,

0001) by 70%. After an initial increase lasting for about 4 days, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) to basal levels within 17.5 +/- 8.4 days. Size of testes was decreased by about 82% after 17 weeks, size of prostate by about 46% after 5 weeks (p < 0.0001). Five to ? Weeks after implantation all dogs were aspermic.\n\nTestosterone and estradiol concentrations, together with testicular and prostatic size remained Suppressed in all dogs in group I and one dog of group

2 until implant removal. The other three dogs of group 2 escaped from down-regulation between 223 and 324 days.\n\nEffects on the availability of LH, T, E2 and on testicular and prostatic size were fully reversible after implant removal or escape from down-regulation. In six dogs semen quality was back to pre-treatment values after Prexasertib cell line about 29 weeks, however, BTSA1 order one dog developed oligozoospermia while another one stayed azoospermic, probably due to an obstruction within the epididymal duct. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Minimization of blood loss during pancreatoduodenectomy requires careful surgical technique and specific

preventative measures. Therefore, red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and operative time are potential surgical quality indicators. The aim of the present study was to compare peri-operative RBC transfusion and operative time with 30-day morbidity/mortality after pancreatoduodenectomy.\n\nMethods: All pancreatoduodenectomies (2005 to 2008) were identified using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). RBC transfusions and operative time were correlated with 30-day morbidity/mortality.\n\nResults: Pancreatoduodenectomy was JPH203 completed in 4817 patients. RBC transfusions were given to 1559 (32%) patients (1-35 units). Overall morbidity and mortality rates were 37% and 3.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day morbidity

increased in a stepwise manner with the number of RBC transfusions (R = 0.69, P < 0.01). Although RBC transfusions and operative times were not statistically linked (P = 0.87), longer operative times were linearly associated with increased 30-day morbidity (R = 0.79, P < 0.001) and mortality (R = 0.65, P < 0.01). Patients who were not transfused also displayed less morbidity (33%) and mortality (1.9%) (P < 0.05).\n\nDiscussion: Peri-operative RBC transfusion after pancreatoduodenectomy is linearly associated with 30-day morbidity. Longer operative time also correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, blood transfusions and prolonged operative time should be considered quality indicators for pancreatoduodenectomy.”
“Study design: Retrospective descriptive observational study.\n\nObjective: The primary objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury (SCI) at our SCI unit (SCIU).

Results: Pathogenic defects, all confined to MLH1 and MSH2, were

Results: Pathogenic defects, all confined to MLH1 and MSH2, were identified in 17 out of 59 (28.8%) families. A-1155463 price The mutational spectrum was highly heterogeneous and 28 novel variants were identified. One recurrent mutation in MLH1 (c.793C bigger than T) was also observed. 92.9% sensitivity for indication of germline mutations conferred by IHC surpassed 64.3% sensitivity by MSI. Furthermore, 15.6% patients with MSS tumors harbored pathogenic

mutations. Conclusions: Among major ethnic groups in Singapore, all pathogenic germline defects were confined to MLH1 and MSH2. Caution should be applied when the Amsterdam criteria and consensus microsatellite marker panel recommended in the revised Bethesda guidelines are applied to the local context. We recommend a screening strategy for the local LS by starting with tumor IHC and the hotspot mutation testing at MLH1 c.793C bigger than T followed by comprehensive mutation scanning in MLH1 and MSH2 prior to proceeding to other MMR IPI-145 supplier genes.”
“We presented retrospective analysis of up to five polymorphisms in TS, MTHFR and ERCC1 genes as molecular predictive markers for homogeneous Caucasian, non-squamous NSCLC patients treated with pemetrexed and platinum

front-line chemotherapy. The following polymorphisms in DNA isolated from 115 patients were analyzed: various number of 28-bp tandem repeats in 5′-UTR region of TS gene, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the second tandem repeat of TS gene (G bigger than C); 6-bp deletion in 3′-UTR region of the TS (1494del6); 677C bigger than T SNP in MTHFR; 19007C bigger than T SNP in ERCC1. Molecular examinations’ results were correlated with disease control Selleckchem ALK inhibitor rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Polymorphic tandem repeat sequence (2R, 3R) in the enhancer region of TS gene and G bigger than

C SNP within the second repeat of 3R allele seem to be important for the effectiveness of platinum and pemetrexed in first-line chemotherapy. The insignificant shortening of PFS in 3R/3R homozygotes as compared to 2R/2R and 2R/3R genotypes were observed, while it was significantly shorter in patients carrying synchronous 3R allele and G nucleotide. The combined analysis of TS VNTR and MTHFR 677C bigger than T SNP revealed shortening of PFS in synchronous carriers of 3R allele in TS and two C alleles in MTHFR. The strongest factors increased the risk of progression were poor PS, weight loss, anemia and synchronous presence of 3R allele and G nucleotide in the second repeat of 3R allele in TS. Moreover, lack of application of second-line chemotherapy, weight loss and poor performance status and above-mentioned genotype of TS gene increased risk of early mortality. The examined polymorphisms should be accounted as molecular predictor factors for pemetrexed- and platinum-based front-line chemotherapy in non-squamous NSCLC patients.

These findings provide strong evidence of a unique link between p

These findings provide strong evidence of a unique link between physical disgust and morality.

(C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: There have been no previous studies showing clinical outcomes according to treatment options of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury with mild grade 2 or less posterior translation (<7 mm) combined with posterolateral rotatory instability.\n\nPurpose: To compare the clinical outcomes of posterolateral corner learn more (PLC) reconstruction with or without simultaneous PCL reconstruction in PCL injuries with mild posterior translation.\n\nStudy Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.\n\nMethods: A total of 46 patients with a PCL injury with mild posterior translation combined with posterolateral rotatory instability were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two patients had undergone isolated PLC reconstruction (group A), and 24 patients had undergone simultaneous reconstruction

of the PCL and PLC (group B). Each patient was assessed for knee instability with the dial test at 30 degrees and 90 degrees as well as with varus and posterior stress radiography and were evaluated with the Lysholm knee score and International Knee Documentation PFTα Committee (IKDC) subjective and objective grading.\n\nResults: In all cases, the minimum follow-up period was 24 months. At the final follow-up evaluation, no significant side-to-side difference was found on varus stress radiography (group A, 1.55 +/- 0.78 mm vs group Napabucasin mouse B, 1.35 +/- 1.00 mm; P = .458) or the dial test (at 30 degrees : group A, 4.00 degrees +/- 1.83 degrees vs group B, 4.04 degrees +/- 1.30 degrees; P = .929; at 90 degrees : group A, 3.64 degrees +/- 1.18 degrees vs group B, 3.67 degrees +/- 1.37 degrees; P = .937). However, group B showed a significant improvement

compared with group A on posterior stress radiography (group A, 0.16 +/- 0.44 mm vs group B, -1.44 +/- 0.74 mm; P < .001), Lysholm knee score (group A, 18.36 +/- 8.73 vs group B, 23.42 +/- 7.44; P = .040), IKDC subjective score (group A, 25.51 +/- 7.11 vs group B, 33.08 +/- 5.89; P < .001), and IKDC objective score (group A preoperatively: grade C = 19 patients, grade D = 3; group B preoperatively: grade C = 20, grade D = 4; group A postoperatively: grade B = 11, grade C = 11; group B postoperatively: grade A = 12, grade B = 9, grade C = 3) (P < .001).\n\nConclusion: Simultaneous reconstruction of the PCL and PLC is recommended when addressing PCL injuries with mild grade 2 or less posterior translation combined with posterolateral rotary instability.”
“Substance use disorders (e.g. substance addiction, substance abuse) and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (adult ADHD) are frequent psychiatric disorders with a high individual and social relevance. Complex interactions of common and divergent susceptibility genes and environmental factors are important for both disorders which have a relatively high heritability.

Finally, the photocatalytic mechanisms in three different photoca

Finally, the photocatalytic mechanisms in three different photocatalytic systems were discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study employed a hormone bioassay to characterize the eicosanoids involved in zebrafish ovulation and spawning, in particular the prostaglandin (PG) products of cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolism and the leukotriene (LT) products of lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolism. Exposure to the teleost progestogen 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta P) induced ovulation, but not spawning, in solitary females and both ovulation and spawning

GSK2126458 mw in male female pairs. Transcription of the eicosanoid-synthesizing enzymes cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and COX-2 increased and LTC4 synthase decreased in peri-ovulatory

Elafibranor Metabolism inhibitor ovaries of 17,20 beta P-exposed fish. Ovarian PGF(2 alpha), levels increased post-spawning in 17,20 beta P-exposed fish, but there was no difference in LTB4 or LTC4. Pre-exposure to cPLA(2) or LOX inhibitors reduced 17,20 beta P-induced ovulation rates, while a COX inhibitor had no effect on ovulation or spawning. Collectively, these findings suggest that eicosanoids, in particular LOX metabolites, mediate 17,20 beta P-induced ovulation in zebrafish. COX metabolites also appear to be involved in ovulation and spawning but their role remains undefined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro permeation model that will predict the fraction of drugs absorbed in humans. A rotating-diffusion cell with two aqueous compartments, separated by a lipid-impregnated artificial membrane, was used to determine the permeability of drugs under conditions of controlled hydrodynamics. The measured PLX4032 solubility dmso effective permeability coefficient was modified to include the paracellular transport derived from a previously

reported colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (Caco-2) permeability study and the effects of unstirred water layer anticipated in vivo.\n\nPermeability data were collected for 31 different marketed drugs with known absolute oral bioavailability and human hepatic clearance data. Literature bioavailability values were corrected for the first pass hepatic clearance thus obtaining the fraction absorbed from intestinal lumen (fraction absorbed), Fa, while assuming that the fraction escaping intestinal extraction, F(g), was approximately similar to 1. Permeability obtained under conditions of controlled hydrodynamics was compared with the permeability measured under unstirred conditions. It is shown that the optimized effective permeability correlates with the fraction absorbed.

However, most species were

found only as individual plant

However, most species were

found only as individual plants in the filtration bed margins with the exception of Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle) in the inflow zone and Epilobium hirsutum (Hairy willowherb) in the outflow zone of several systems. It has been found that the number of “weedy” species decreases with increasing length of operation. In systems, where “weedy” species overgrew the originally planted species, treatment efficiency was not affected. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We examined vegetation structure and woody species diversity in relation to 14 environmental and anthropogenic factors in ten tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments in central Veracruz, Mexico. The basal area of the canopy (30.2 +/- A 2.11 m(2)/ha) and understory (1.96 +/- A 0.12 m(2)/ha) trees was similar, but density (1,014 +/- A 104 and 2,532 +/- A 227 individuals/ha, respectively) differed among GSK461364 ic50 sites. We recorded 98 canopy, 77 understory,

and 60 seedling species. Richness was 24-45 species per site, Fisher’s alpha and Shannon’s indices increased with site altitude. Chao Jaccard indices revealed high species turnover, and a consistently higher Z-VAD-FMK similarity within the sites at the lowest and within the highest elevation sites. Ordination identified altitude, aspect, slope, water proximity, cattle and trails as significant explanatory variables of species patterns, and showed that sites at lower elevations were clearly separated from the other sites. Environmental heterogeneity alone did not control

species diversity distribution, but species were affected by environmental filters at different stages in their life cycle, e.g., water proximity was significant for saplings and seedlings but not for adults. Anthropogenic disturbances act synergistically, e.g., trails played a key role in determining structure and tree diversity patterns. An important finding is that human disturbance diminishes species selleck chemicals diversity in this TDF, but sites at lower elevations were more disturbed and less diverse, therefore we need to study how environmental factors would act if there were no anthropogenic disturbance.”
“(Seedling morphology of Rhynchosia species (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from Roraima, Brazil). This paper aims to describe, illustrate and compare the seedling morphology of the four species of Rhynchosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) that occur in Roraima, Brazil. The studied species, R. phaseoloides (SW.) DC., R. melanocarpa Grear, R. minima (L.) DC., and R. schomburgkii Benth., possess crypto-hypogeal-reserve seedlings, eophylls at the first node that are 1-foliolate and opposite, and double and free stipules. The results show that morphological diversity found among seedlings of the studied species can be used to identify them at the specific level.

We find consistent in-phase coherencies between

locusts a

We find consistent in-phase coherencies between

locusts and drought/flood frequencies, and out-of-phase GS-7977 in vitro coherencies between locusts and temperature and between drought/flood and temperature at period components of 160-170 years. Similar results are obtained when historical data of drought/flood frequencies of the Yangtze Delta region are used, despite flood data showing a weak and somewhat inconsistent association with other factors. We suggest that previously unreported periodic cooling of 160-170-year intervals dominate climatic variability in China through the past millennium, the cooling events promoting locust plagues by enhancing temperature-associated drought/flood events. Our results signify a rare example of possible benign effects of global warming on the regional risk of natural disasters such as flood/drought events and outbreaks of pest insects.”
“We report a case of an 8-month-old child with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy arising in the thenar eminence. The lesion recurred after conservative excision and was ultimately nonresponsive to chemotherapy, necessitating partial amputation. The patient remains free of disease

5 years after this radical surgery. This is the 1st report of such a tumor since it was initially described by Alaggio and colleagues in 2006. The pathologic differential diagnosis is discussed.”
“Interactions between organisms are important determinants CHIR-99021 mw of species distributions and abundances. Due to the high complexity of interactions between species in natural systems, the outcome of a given interaction can affect others, finally modifying community composition. In South-Western Atlantic intertidal mudflats, the zonation of the burrowin crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus)

granulate and the intertidal snail Heleobia australis rarely overlaps, suggesting that both species might have negative interactions; and, given that both species have different foraging check details strategies, these negative interactions can have top-down impacts on community composition. Zonation patterns of both species showed that snails are more abundant in areas without crab burrows, and field experiments revealed that snail density correlated with a reduction in crab density and that when crabs were excluded, snails were able to colonize those higher intertidal areas. Bioturbation and not competition seems to drive that pattern, given that crabs have no effects on microalgae, but negatively affect infaunal organisms such as copepods, flagellates, nauplli larvae and snails. Conversely, snails negatively affect algal assemblages, specifically cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, and euglenophytes, although diatoms, the most abundant group, was not modified.

Furthermore, TIA patients also have notable variation as compared

Furthermore, TIA patients also have notable variation as compared to control group. Serum ox-LDL and inflammatory biomarkers were positively correlated with the frequency of Th17 cells and negatively correlated with the frequency of Treg cells. Treg selleck products and Th17 cells from ACI patients were significantly susceptible to ox-LDL-mediated alterations in vitro. Conclusions: Th17/Treg cells were imbalanced in ACI patients, and ox-LDL may contribute to this imbalance and lead to the occurrence of ACI suggesting their pathogenetic role in ACI.”

properties of intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. The strain states of GaN wells are studied by Raman spectra and reciprocal space mappings, which shows that the GaN wells are compressively strained and the compressive strain is increased when the Al mole composition is varied from 0 to 0.3. The Fourier transform infrared

spectrometer results show that the intersubband transition wavelength in the AlGaN/GaN MQWs can be tuned from 5.14 mu m to 4.65 mu m when the Al mole composition of the AlGaN template is increased. The results can be attributed to the quantum confined Stark effect. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“A new approach to the extraction of bioactive Selleck AZD6094 phenolic compounds from carob kibbles has been proposed. Carob PD98059 concentration pulp kibbles, a by-product of the carob bean gum production, were subject to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and to ultrasound assisted (UAE) and conventional solid-liquid extractions with two different solvent systems (100% H2O and 70% acetone), in order to obtain phenolic rich extracts with biological activities. These extracts were characterized

for total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and their phenolic profile was qualitatively evaluated by HPLC-DAD. Chromatographic profile of SFE extract showed a diversity of phenolic compounds while ultrasound and conventional extracts contained mainly gallic acid. The highest phenolics concentration and antioxidant capacity was also found in the SFE extract. Preliminary screening of the extracts antiproliferative activity on rat N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells, and on human HeLa cervical and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed that carob SFE extract exhibited a much higher antiproliferative effect in the studied tumor cells, indicating its greater potential as a source of natural antitumor compounds. Supercritical fluid extraction revealed to be a more selective and efficient method of extraction. Thus, the potential association of two environmentally clean processes (UAE and SFE) for obtaining polyphenols from carob kibbles will enable bioactive compounds within an integrated and sustainable recovery process.

Three embedding media were investigated: (i) standard


Three embedding media were investigated: (i) standard

agarose (n – 3 hearts); (ii) Fomblin (n – 4 hearts); and (iii) iso-osmotic agarose (n – 3 hearts); in the latter, the osmolarity of the fixative and embedding medium was adjusted to 300 mOsm to match more closely that of native tissue. The T-1 relaxation time in the myocardium showed a pronounced decrease over a 48-h period following embedding in Fomblin (-11.3 +/- 6.2%; mean +/- standard deviation), but was stable in standard agarose-and iso-osmotic Vorinostat agarose-embedded hearts. The mean myocardial T2 relaxation time increased in all embedded hearts: by 35.1 +/- 14.7% with standard agarose embedding, 13.1 +/- 5.6% with Fomblin and 13.3 +/- 1.4% with iso-osmotic agarose. Deviation in the orientation of the primary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor occurred in all hearts (mean angular changes of 6.6 degrees, 3.2 degrees and 1.9 degrees per voxel after 48 h in agarose-, Fomblin-and iso-osmotic agarose- embedded hearts,

respectively), indicative of progressive structural changes in myocardial histo-architecture, in spite of previous exposure to fast-acting tissue fixation. Our results suggest that progressive structural changes occur in chemically fixed myocardium, and that the extent of these changes is modulated by the embedding medium, and by osmotic gradients between the fixative in the tissue and the surrounding medium. Copyright (C) 2010 JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Aim: The aim of GDC-0994 research buy this study was to analyze the hematological features in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to review our current treatment protocols. Methods: We evaluated hematological findings of 43 children with SLE diagnosed and followed at the Pediatric Rheumatology Division of Hacettepe University, Turkey. Thirty-seven patients with hematological abnormalities were analyzed in detail. Results: Median age at presentation was 13 years. Hematological involvement was seen in 86% of patients. The most common hematological finding was anemia (n = 30). Anemia was either a Coombs (+) hemolytic one, or was due to other causes. Hemolytic anemia was treated

with Quisinostat steroids and intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG). Leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were detected in 35.1 % and 37.8 %, respectively. Bone marrow aspiration was performed in 15, mainly for cytopenia. Secondary dysplastic changes were common. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was diagnosed in one patient. Six patients were diagnosed as having macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). One patient died due to secondary infections and multiorgan failure despite aggressive treatment. In patients diagnosed early, treatment with steroids and cyclosporine resulted in an excellent response. Thrombotic microangiopathy was detected in two patients. Both were treated successfully with steroids and plasma exchange. Antiphospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies were positive in 12 and 15 of the patients, respectively.