5) No differences between the distribution of arteries in both g

5). No differences between the distribution of arteries in both groups were found. As presented in Table 2, except the maximal axial values 1 mm and 2 mm distal the bifurcation, the minimal axial value 3 mm proximal, and the maximal selleck chemical perpendicular value 1mm proximal to the bifurcation were all significantly different. The significance level (p-value < 0.001) was superior in the investigated OES-technique (Table 2). A review of the literature reveals that only few publications are found analyzing the flow in microsurgical end-to-side anastomoses, though a plethora of technical variations

exist.[11, 14, 15, 27, 28] Flow behaviour in approximately true-to-scale silicone rubber models of a conventional technique for end-to-side anastomosis[9] and end-to-side anastomosis using the OES-technique were compared in this study. The measured flow velocities and rates in this experiment were in accordance with intraoperative measurements as described in the literature and the velocity calculations were not affected by the Womersley parameter, since it was

smaller than three.[24, 29-31] The Womersley parameter[32] is a dimensionless parameter in biofluid mechanics and expresses the pulsatile flow frequency in relation to viscous effects and is used for scaling experimental setups.[32-34] Many scientists have studied the flow behaviour in bends and bifurcations by using rigid or www.selleckchem.com/products/epz015666.html simplified models.[35-37] By using the true-to-sclae silicone rubber model, geometry and vessel behavior as well as the fluids used were correct in comparison to human blood vessels as previously published.[22, 38-40] In both models a velocity drop of the maximal axial component between the cross-sections 3 and 1 mm proximal to the reference point was seen (conventional technique model 28.62% and

Liothyronine Sodium OES-model 30.67% of the initial axial velocity component). This velocity drop of the axial component in the main vessel was accompanied with a velocity increase of the perpendicular velocity component, in the branching vessel (conventional technique model 73.8% and 192.45% in the OES-model), representing the flow into the branching vessel, The “perpendicular velocity component” in the branching vessel equates the real axial flow direction of the branching vessel, since the LDA measurements were only performed in x-z-axis. This measured velocity increase was probably due to an increased cross-sectional area in the end-to-side anastomosis of the OES-model. Sen et al. described another end-to-side technique with an increase of the cross-sectional area by performing a diamond-shaped arteriotomy.[15] For further evaluation they performed mathematical analyses to verify their considerations.

Inflammatory monocytes trended upward in some infected groups on

Inflammatory monocytes trended upward in some infected groups on experiment day 9 (Figure 6e: Kruskal–Wallis, P = 0·0062; Dunn’s pairwise comparisons, all P > 0·05), and at experiment day 10, infected pregnant MI-503 datasheet A/J mouse spleens had higher numbers

of these cells than uninfected pregnant A/J mice (Figure 6f). Although TNF antibody ablation provides dramatic preservation of B6 conceptuses up to experiment day 12 (21), the same treatment protocol was not successful in improving pregnancy outcome in A/J mice. In this case, all embryos were expelled by experiment day 11 (Figure 7a). Course of parasitemia was not selleck chemical altered by TNF ablation (Figure 7b), and neither haematocrit levels nor weight change differed significantly at any time point between control and antibody-ablated infected mice (Figure 7c, d). It has become

clear that immune responses elicited by malaria during pregnancy can have significant adverse effects on the placenta and foetus (28). However, detailed examination of underlying mechanisms in humans is difficult owing to a myriad of practical and ethical barriers, making mouse models an important tool for advancing understanding of gestational malaria pathogenesis. An extension of previous work that revealed a critical role for maternal immune responses in P. chabaudi AS pathogenesis in the B6 mouse (19–21), the present work addressed the hypothesis that malaria during pregnancy in A/J mice will induce proinflammatory responses that, as in B6 mice, will result in poor pregnancy outcome. The results show that while immune responses to this infection during

pregnancy vary as a function of genetic background, pregnancy is compromised in both mouse strains. B6 Phosphoglycerate kinase and A/J mice have been used extensively to explore immunoprotective and immunopathogenic responses to P. chabaudi AS infection (12,29,30) and thus were an attractive choice to assess strain-dependent immune responses to this infection during pregnancy. Like virgin females and males (15,31–33), pregnant A/J mice are more susceptible to P. chabaudi AS infection than their B6 counterparts. Whereas B6 mice ultimately control P. chabaudi AS infection (20), infected pregnant A/J mice are highly susceptible and succumb to infection by experiment day 12. Nonetheless, consistent with the well-reported epidemiology of malaria during human pregnancy (1), both infected pregnant B6 (20) and A/J mice display higher-density peak peripheral parasitemia compared with their non-pregnant counterparts. In addition, P. chabaudi AS accumulates in the maternal blood sinusoids of both B6 (20) and A/J mice.

A Watson–Marlow 205S peristaltic pump was used to maintain the AB

A Watson–Marlow 205S peristaltic pump was used to maintain the AB medium flow with or without 0.5% ginseng at a constant rate of 3 mL h−1. Biofilm tolerance to tobramycin was Selleckchem Adriamycin assessed by supplementing the medium to the 3-day-old P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 biofilms with

tobramycin at concentrations of 20 μg mL−1. The tobramycin treatments were continued for 24 h. Bacterial viability was assessed by staining ginseng-treated biofilms with 20 μM of propidium iodide for 10 min, followed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) observation. The biofilms of P. aeruginosa PAO1, PDO300 and NH57388A were cultivated in flow chambers for 7 days. The tolerance of biofilms to ginseng was assessed by adding 0.5% ginseng to the influent medium of 7-day-old preformed biofilms for 24 h. Images were recorded from hour 0 to hour 24 under CLSM. Bacterial viability in biofilms was assessed using propidium iodide staining as described above. All microscopic observations were performed on a Zeiss LSM510 confocal laser scanning microscope, CLSM (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany), equipped with an argon laser detector and filter sets for monitoring of green fluorescent

protein (GFP) fluorescence. Images were obtained using a 40 ×/1.3 Plan-Neofluar Oil objective. Vertical cross-section images were generated using the imaris Ivacaftor purchase software package (Bitplane AG, Zurich, Switzerland). 1 Swimming. Bacteria were inoculated using a sterile toothpick at the center of 5 mm ABT plates (AB medium containing 2.5 mg L−1 thiamine, 0.3% Bacto agar, 0.2% Casamino acids and 30 mM glucose). The swimming zone was measured after a 48-h incubation at room temperature. Forty 12-week-old healthy female Balb/c mice were used in the study. The animals were divided into four groups and each contained 10 mice. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-filM were used as challenge strains, which were immobilized in alginate beads as described previously (Wu et al., 2001). The challenge concentrations were 108 CFU mL−1. Half the animals were fed with 5% ginseng aqueous extracts 2 h and 30 min before intratracheal

challenge and the dosage were Carteolol HCl equal to 0.5% of the final concentration in animal body fluid. The other half of the animals functioned as a control and only received normal saline orally at the same timepoints. Each animal received 0.04 mL of PAO1 or PAO1-filM alginate beads intratracheally into the left lung on the basis of anesthesia using a mixture of fentanyl and fluanisone (Hypnorm, 10 mg mL−1) and Midazolam (Dormicum, 5 mg mL−1) at a ratio of 1 : 1. All animals were sacrificed at 24 h after challenge and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed within 15 min. All BAL fluids were kept at 4 °C. The animal experiment was authorized by the National Animal Ethics Committee, Denmark. BAL fluids were centrifuged to collect BAL cells. BAL smears were made and stained by Giemsa solution.

In contrast to mice, CD25 deficiency in humans is accompanied by

In contrast to mice, CD25 deficiency in humans is accompanied by severe immunodeficiency that is characterized by susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens and a normal Treg frequency [9, 14, 15, 21-24]. In addition, IL-2-deficient mice are fully capable of rejecting allografts, whereas CD25-deficient humans are not [24, 49, 50]. Therefore, CD25 may be more important for effector function in humans and more

important for tolerance in mice since only Treg cells constitutively express CD25 in mice. This may explain why blocking CD25 during tumor immuno-therapy has not translated well from mice to humans [51]. Discrepancies between mouse and human immunology selleck have been described elsewhere and is not unexpected since the species diverged 65–75 million years ago [52]. Therefore, studies conducted in mice on the role of IL-2 Seliciclib ic50 in T-cell function may not exactly translate to humans, and this study may offer one possible explanation for these differences.

We believe that the discovery of this CD4+CD25INT population is particularly important for therapies that target CD25/IL-2 and that hopefully by studying the response of this population we can better understand the mechanism of these therapies and improve their clinical efficacy. We evaluated the response of the CD4+CD25INTFOXP3− population to IL-2 immunotherapy. Over the course of IL-2 immunotherapy in cancer patients, the percentage

of CD4+ T cells that were CD25INT population decreased, while the CD25NEG increased and Treg populations stayed relatively stable, Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 suggesting these populations were differentially affected by the therapy. From these studies, it was clear that the CD25INT population was affected by the IL-2 therapy, however, it is currently not known exactly how the CD25INT population responded to the therapy. One possibility is that the CD25INT cells may have downregulated or shed CD25 [53]. However, we did not see diminution of CD25 on the Treg cells, and we demonstrated that not all of the CD25INT population downregulated expression of CD25 in response to rhIL-2 in vitro and that some even increased CD25 expression. In addition, in vitro stimulation with rhIL-2 also suggested that the CD25INT cells are differentially responsive to rhIL-2, as shown by Ki67 staining, and could therefore be act-ivated to a greater degree than the CD25NEG and Treg populations. Therefore, we believe that the disappearance of the CD25INT population observed in IL-2 cancer patients is most likely a combination of events, including decreased surface expression of CD25 and increased activation, which might have led to AICD and/or egress from the blood to tissue. Nevertheless, it is clear that the CD25INT population is greatly affected by IL-2 immunotherapy and may be integral to the antitumor immune response.

These mice developed a progressive inflammatory

These mice developed a progressive inflammatory Atezolizumab encephalopathy with neuropathological features closely recapitulating those observed in AGS. Considering these data, although not proven beyond doubt, we predict that limiting the exposure of the infant brain to an AGS-related type I interferon immune response will attenuate the disease-associated brain damage. AGS is a genetically heterogeneous disease resulting

from mutations in any one of the genes encoding (i) the 3-prime repair exonuclease TREX1 [16] with preferential activity on single-stranded (ss) DNA; (ii) the three non-allelic components of the RNASEH2 endonuclease complex [17] acting on ribonucleotides in RNA : DNA hybrids; (iii) the Sam domain and HD domain containing protein (SAMHD1) [18], which functions as a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase; and (iv) adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1) [19], which catalyses the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded (ds) RNA (Table 1). It is possible that at least one further genetic subtype of AGS is yet to be defined. Although most cases of AGS demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, rare examples due to de-novo dominant TREX1 mutations have been

reported [20-23]. Moreover, the same heterozygous D18N mutation in TREX1 has been Maraviroc research buy seen to cause both (dominant) AGS and familial chilblain lupus (effectively, ‘non-neurological

Fludarabine molecular weight AGS’), thus highlighting the role of unknown, modifying factors (which might be genetic or environmental) and/or stochastic mechanisms. The proteins defective in AGS are all associated with nucleic acid metabolism. The finding of mutations in TREX1 and the genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex in 2006, in the context of a clinical phenotype mimicking congenital infection, led us to hypothesize that (i) these proteins might be involved in clearing cellular nucleic acid ‘debris’; and (ii) that a failure of such waste removal could result in immune activation, specifically triggering an innate immune response more normally induced by viral nucleic acid [24] (Fig. 2). At least with regard to TREX1, cogent evidence has emerged in support of this hypothesis. Thus, Yang et al. [25] demonstrated that TREX1 deficiency results in the intracellular accumulation of abnormal ssDNA species. This finding was confirmed by Stetson and colleagues [26], who showed that in Trex1-null mice, ssDNA activation of a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent cytosolic pathway involving IRF3, TBK1 and STING results in the induction of a type I interferon response, and a recruitment of the adaptive immune system requiring functional lymphocytes.

Nuclear and cytosolic extracts were stored at −80° Protein conce

Nuclear and cytosolic extracts were stored at −80°. Protein concentration was determined as above. Whole-cell or nuclear extracts were mixed 1 : 1 with Laemmli sample buffer and heated at 95° for 5 min. Proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

using Tris/Glycine29 or Tris/Tricine30 buffer systems. Resolved proteins were electro-transferred to PVDF or nitrocellulose membranes, blocked with 5% BSA (RPN412; Amersham) in TBS (20 mm Tris, pH 7·6, and 140 mm NaCl) containing 0·02% v/v Tween 20 (blocking solution) and probed with antibodies as indicated (see results). Immunoreactive bands were detected by ECL using a G:Box Chemi-XT CCD gel imaging system and GeneSnap image acquisition software (Syngene, Cambridge, UK). Relative band Opaganib intensities were quantitated using GeneTools image analysis software (Syngene). Total RNA was extracted from 3 × 106 cells using an RNeasy Plus Mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Purified RNA was quantified spectrophotometrically, aliquoted and stored at −80°. RNA (1 μg)

was converted to cDNA using Superscript III reverse transcriptase and 2·5 μm oligo(dT)20 primer in 20 μl, according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Real-time PCR was performed on a Bio-Rad Mini-Opticon thermal cycler using 15 ng of reverse-transcribed RNA and 200 nm specific forward and reverse primers in 25 μl, using SybrGreen

https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2109761.html qPCR Super Mix. PCR conditions were 3 min at 95°, with 50 cycles of 15 seconds at 95° and 30 seconds at 60°. All samples were Liothyronine Sodium assayed in triplicate. mRNA levels were normalized using TATA binding protein (TBP) and ribosomal protein L13A (RPL13A) as internal controls31 using genex software (Bio-Rad). Melting point analysis was carried out for all runs. To measure PCR efficiency, serially diluted, reverse-transcribed mRNA (from 0·1 pg to 200 ng) was amplified with each set of primers, and linear standard curves obtained by plotting the log of the serial dilutions against the cycle threshold (CT) value. The slope of each curve was used to calculate efficiency for primer sets using the formula E = 10−1/slope. The relative expression of the tested genes in untreated and treated cells was determined using the 2−ΔΔCT formula.32 Amplification products for all tested genes were analysed on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels to ensure single amplification products of the expected size. Primers were designed using Primer3 (http://frodo.wi.mit.edu/primer3/) and synthesized by MWG (Martinsried, Germany). IL-2 mRNA (NM_000586) was amplified from position 38 to 264, with primers: forward 5′-acctcaactcctgccacaat-3′ and reverse 5′-gccttcttgggcatgtaaaa-3′. IL-2RA mRNA (NM_000417) was amplified from 892 to 1072, with primers: forward 5′-ggctgtgttttcctgctgat-3′ and reverse 5′-gcgaccatttagcacctttg-3′.

Among the dermatophytes, the most common pathogen isolated was Tr

Among the dermatophytes, the most common pathogen isolated was Trichophyton rubrum (59.4%), followed in descending order by: Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (16.6%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes

var. mentagrophytes (9.0%), Trichophyton tonsurans (6.8%), Microsporum canis (5.1%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (2.7%). Among the yeast-like fungi, a marked predominance Selleckchem Paclitaxel of Candida species was observed (86.3%). Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was the most commonly isolated mould (25.2%). The most frequently affected body sites were the toenails (53.9%), followed by the fingernails (19.0%). In children under 15 years of age, glabrous skin was the most commonly affected body site with M. canis as the most frequent causative agent. “
“The aim of this study was to examine the antifungal activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin and posaconazole on Candida albicans biofilms in the intermediate PLX4032 solubility dmso and mature development phases. Candida albicans biofilms, previously grown for either 24, 48 or

72 h in 96-well microtitre plates, were treated for 48 h with amphotericin B, caspofungin or posaconazole in increasing concentrations according to the respective minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined for planktonic cells (1–128 × MIC). The biofilms were quantified using the mean optical density (OD) determined by XTT assay. Antifungal activities were expressed as percentage of reduction in OD of drug-treated Rutecarpine biofilms compared to untreated biofilms.

To test the fungicidal activity of antifungal agents, the unfixed biofilms were scraped off and seeded to Sabouraud agar. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed higher activity against C. albicans biofilm grown for 24 h and 72 h (≥50% reduction of OD) than biofilms grown for 48 h, whereas posaconazole showed similar, but reduced activity against all phases of C. albicans biofilm (≤50% reduction of OD). Caspofungin at 1–4 × MIC achieved the greatest decrease in the biofilm OD grown for 24, 48 and 72 h, whereas amphotericin B showed dose-dependent activity. However, all tested antifungals failed to reach fungicidal activity in all biofilm development phases. Invasive Candida infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients.1 Surgery, long-term admission at intensive care units, broad-spectrum antibiotics and percutaneous intravascular catheters are predisposing factors for the development of invasive Candida infections.2 Colonisation is common and considered a risk factor for invasive Candida infection.3 On the skin, mucosa and inert surfaces of intravascular catheters Candida cells attach, proliferate and may finally form a biofilm of hyphae and densely packed cells embedded within an inert matrix.4,5 Established biofilms are difficult to eliminate and are a source of persistent infections and recurrent fungaemia.

Metformin is recommended as the drug of first choice in patients

Metformin is recommended as the drug of first choice in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes

in a consensus document issued by the American Diabetic Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.3,4 The Diabetes Australia Guideline Consortium also recommended metformin as first-line treatment in type 2 diabetes.5 As a result of the potential risk of lactic acidosis with metformin in those with renal impairment however, it’s use in patients with chronic kidney disease and after renal transplantation is limited. The major effect of metformin is to reduce hepatic glucose production.6 Until recently, its major Aurora Kinase inhibitor mechanism of action has been unclear; however, recent data have shown that phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator cAMP response element-binding

(CREB) protein occurs with metformin, thus reducing the expression of genes inducing gluconeogenesis.7 In addition, metformin increases the insulin-mediated utilization of glucose Doxorubicin clinical trial in peripheral tissue thereby improving glycaemic control8 while also reducing free fatty acid concentrations resulting in less substrate available for gluconeogenesis. In comparison to other hypoglycaemic agents, metformin is much less likely to result in hypoglycaemic episodes, rendering this agent safer from this perspective.9 Elimination is reduced in those with renal impairment thereby lengthening the plasma half life of the drug, which is increased in proportion to the degree of impairment in creatinine clearance.10 Metformin is generally well tolerated but gastroenterological

side-effects are common, occurring in at least 10% of patients. These include anorexia, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. These symptoms can be mild and transient but are severe in some necessitating discontinuation Rucaparib clinical trial of the drug in only 5%. A reduction in Vitamin B12 absorption can also occur after a long period of metformin use11 and although this is uncommon, some have recommended vitamin B12 screening.12 The greatest perceived risk associated with metformin is that of lactic acidosis. A number of reports in the literature link biguanides with the development of lactic acidosis. Initial reports with phenformin showed a high incidence of lactic acidosis with an event rate of 40–64 per 100 000 patient years.13 Phenformin was removed from the US market because of the risk of lactic acidosis in 1977. The incidence of lactic acidosis with metformin is markedly lower than with phenformin, with two recent meta-analyses showing no evidence of an increased risk of lactic acidosis associated with the use of metformin compared with non-metformin therapies.

Interestingly, CD8α+ DC can produce large amounts of TGF-β 14 Th

Interestingly, CD8α+ DC can produce large amounts of TGF-β 14. This finding may explain their ability to induce Th17 responses in an inflammatory setting and fits with our previous finding of TGF-β-dependent induction of Th17

cells by curdlan-stimulated DC in vitro25. In addition, TGF-β acts to promote the conversion of naïve T cells into antigen-specific Treg in non-inflammatory conditions 14, 30, 31. This can be seen with small amounts of DNGR-1-targeted antigen in the absence of adjuvant, in agreement with previous conclusions that antigen presentation in sub-immunogenic conditions promotes establishment of tolerance 12. Notably, the CD8α+ NVP-AUY922 datasheet DC population includes cells able to synthesize retinoic acid, which enhances selleck kinase inhibitor Treg conversion 32. It is intriguing to speculate that such cells might be responsible for Treg conversion following antigen targeting to DNGR-1. The fact that high doses of antigen and/or strong activation of DC limit Treg accumulation can be explained by the antagonistic effect of T-cell proliferation on the Treg conversion process, as previously reported by Kretschmer et al. upon antigen delivery using anti-DEC205 mAb 12. Tolerance induction by antigen targeting to DNGR-1 could be useful in clinical settings for inducing transplantation

tolerance or controlling autoimmunity and could be improved, for example, by co-administering immunomodulatory molecules, TCL such as IL-2 and rapamycin, which expand freshly generated Treg while selectively dampening down the “effector” population 33. It is worth noting that in contrast to the induction of Th1, Th17 or Foxp3+ cells, we cannot induce the differentiation of Th2 cells. This result is in line with the notion that CD8α+ DC are poor Th2 inducers 34 and fits with recent publications showing that antigen presentation by DC is not involved in driving Th2 responses 35–37. Thus, vaccines or immunotherapies employing antigen targeting to DNGR-1 are unlikely to inadvertently drive a detrimental allergic Th2 response. We can promote Th1 differentiation with

CpG and anti-CD40 mAb but find that poly I:C is by far the most potent inducer of Th1 priming, in agreement with a recent publication 23. Notably, double-stranded RNA, such as poly I:C, triggers IL-12 production in DC 38, but it has been reported that IL-12 is dispensable for Th1 priming when antigen is selectively targeted to CD8α+ DC 10. Our finding that anti-DNGR-1 conjugates plus poly I:C prime normal Th1 responses in IL-12 p40-deficient animals is consistent with that report. Antigen targeting to some DC-expressed C-type lectin receptor has been reported to trigger CD4+ T-cell help-dependent B-cell responses in the absence of adjuvant 39, 40. In line with these observations, Caminschi et al.

albicans colonies may suggest correlation between candidal colony

albicans colonies may suggest correlation between candidal colony counts in the vagina of mother and Candida colonisation in the neonate.

Perinatal risk factors for neonatal colonisation were maternal colonisation and vaginal delivery. It has been reported that low gestational age (<32 week) and very low birthweight (<1500 g) are risk factors for neonatal Candida colonisation.[5, 18, 20] We did not confirm these findings, but in our cohort there was only one neonate with very low birthweight (1420 g) and two neonates with low gestational age (lower gestational age 32 weeks). Our study demonstrated that early Candida colonisation of the neonate seems to occur through vertical transmission click here in the first 72 h of life. However, we did not investigate horizontal transmission from other sources. Furthermore, we did not swab all infants later on (especially on 7th day) to explore the full process of colonisation. Nevertheless, our findings strongly suggest that early neonatal colonisation by C. albicans occurs through vertical transmission, during or immediately after birth, and that horizontal transmission is not the principal mode of colonisation in the very first days of life. None for Anthoula Filippidi, Emmanouil Galanakis, learn more Sofia Maraki, Irene Galani, Maria Drogari-Apiranthitou, Maria Kalmanti, Elpis

Mantadakis. Dr G. Samonis has received fees for speaking, for organising education, reimbursement for attending symposiums, funds for research, fees for serving Cell press on an advisory board from companies Pfizer, Gilead, Astellas and MSD. “
“The cut-off values of immunological tests employed in diagnosis

of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) have never been validated. Herein, we compare the immunological findings in patients with ABPA and asthma using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Consecutive asthmatic subjects underwent all the following investigations: Aspergillus skin test, IgE levels (total and A. fumigatus-specific), Aspergillus precipitins, eosinophil count, chest radiograph and CT chest. There were 372 subjects (179 men, mean age 35.9 years) with a mean asthma duration of 8 years. ABPA was diagnosed in 76 patients (64 bronchiectasis, 12 without bronchiectasis). ABPA was separated from asthma using the best cut-off values of total IgE, A. fumigatus IgE and total eosinophil count of 2347 IU ml−1, 1.91 kUA l−1 and 507 cells per μl respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of these parameters were 87/81%; 99/87%; and, 79/76% respectively. The corresponding AUC values were 0.95, 0.90 and 0.82 respectively. The combination of these three tests at the aforementioned cut-offs provided 100% specificity. Our study provides evidence-based cut-off values of IgE (total and A. fumigatus-specific) and eosinophil counts in differentiating ABPA from asthma.