The EC-SOD activity was nearly 1 5-fold higher in the transgenic

The EC-SOD activity was nearly 1.5-fold higher in the transgenic MEF-treated group than in the nontransgenic MEF-treated group (p < 0.05). The severity of arthritis in mice was scored in a double-blind manner. with each paw being assigned a separate clinical score. The severity of arthritis in EC-SOD

transgenic MEF-treated mice was significantly Suppressed in the arthritic clinical score (p < 0.05). To investigate the alteration of cytokine levels, ELISA was used to measure blood samples. Levels of IL-I beta and TNF-alpha were reduced in the transgenic MEF-treated group (p < 0.05). Abnormalities of the joints were examined by H&E staining. There were no signs of inflammation except for mild hyperplasia Linsitinib supplier of the synovium in the transgenic MEF-treated group. ne proliferation of CII-specific T cells was lower in the transgenic MEF-treated mice than in those in the other groups. The transfer of EC-SOD transgenic MEF has shown a therapeutic effect in CIA mice and this approach may be a safer and more effective form of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.”
“The biofuel industry is rapidly growing because of increasing energy demand and diminishing HIF-1 pathway petroleum reserves on a global scale. A multitude of biomass resources have been

investigated, with high-yielding, perennial feedstocks showing the greatest potential for utilization as advanced biofuels. Government policy and economic drivers have promoted the development

and commercialization of biofuel feedstocks, conversion technologies, and supply chain logistics. Research and regulations have focused on the environmental consequences of biofuels, greatly promoting systems that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and life-cycle impacts. Numerous biofuel refineries using lignocellulosic feedstocks and biomass-based triglycerides are either in production or pre-commercial development phases. Leading candidate energy crops have been identified, yet require additional efforts to realize their full potential. Advanced biofuels, complementing conventional BVD-523 research buy biofuels and other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, provide the means to substantially displace humanity’s reliance on petroleum-based energy.”
“Various nanoparticles have been developed as imaging probes and drug carriers, and their selectivity in binding to target cells determines the efficacy of these functionalized nanoparticles. Since target cells in different arterial segments experience different hemodynamic environments, we study the effects of wall shear rate waveforms on particle binding. We also explore the effects of the kinetic rate constant, which is determined by particle design parameters, on particle binding. A transport and reaction model is used to evaluate nanoparticle binding to the substrate in a laminar flow chamber. Flow and particle concentration fields are solved by using a computational fluid dynamics.

5-32) and those who received more than 0 01 Gy had a risk of 6 9

5-32) and those who received more than 0.01 Gy had a risk of 6.9 (0.5-99). This study suggests that radiation therapy of skin hemangioma increases the risk of further melanoma, but we were not able to evidence a relation with the local dose. Nevertheless, childhood treated for hemangioma should be considered at risk for developing melanoma and suspicious pigmented lesions should be carefully evaluated even far from treated areas. Melanoma Res 22: 77-85 (C) 2012 Wolters Staurosporine price Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Gout inflammation is on acute and self-resolving reaction.\n\nMSU crystals

con stimulate cells through either crystal-cell membrane interaction or after their phagocytosis.\n\nThe onset of gout inflammation relies on non-hematopoietic resident cells whereas the amplification of the reaction is driven by phagocytic cells of immune innate system.\n\nInterleukin-1p (IL-1 beta) and polynuclear neutrophils play central role in gout inflammation.\n\nIn vitro, MSU crystal-induced IL-1 beta secretion is secondary mainly to NLRP3. inflammasome activation although numerous proteases are also involved. Mechanisms of NLRP3 Sapitinib concentration in inflammasome activation remain unclear involving mostly reactive oxygen species production.\n\nGout resolution involves several mechanisms including monocyte differentiation into macrophage, clearance of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages,

production of Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-beta) and modification of protein coating on MSU crystal surface.”
“The title compound, [Cd(C8H4O5)(H2O)(3)](n), a one-dimensional chain complex of 5-hydroxyisophthalate with Cd-II, was prepared by a hydrothermal reaction. The Cd-II ion is coordinated by three water O atoms and three carboxylate O atoms of two different 5-hydroxyisophthalate ligands, which act as bidentate and monodentate ligands. The crystal structure is stabilized by O-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds.”
“Background: Previous studies have shown that hamstring lengths are often not short in patients with cerebral palsy, which raises concerns over Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor the benefits of distal hamstring lengthening in patients with crouch gait. In

this study, the authors measured lengths of hamstrings and psoas muscles in normal subjects mimicking crouch gait and compared these with lengths in cerebral palsy patients with crouch gait.\n\nMethods: Thirty-six patients with cerebral palsy and crouch gait were included in this study, and in addition, 36 age-and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. Hamstring and psoas muscle lengths in patients were evaluated using gait analysis and interactive musculoskeletal modeling software. Muscle lengths were also measured in the normal control group during normal gait and while mimicking crouch gait, and these were compared with those of cerebral palsy patient with crouch gait.\n\nResults: No significant differences were observed between maximum hamstring (p=0.810) and maximum psoas (p=0.

Additional publications were included by searching bibliographies

Additional publications were included by searching bibliographies. Search terms included laminitis, equine, this website frequency, prevalence and incidence. Studies that allowed frequency estimations to be made for naturally-occurring equine laminitis were included. Information was extracted using predefined data fields, including 13 study quality indicators.\n\nSixty-nine publications were appraised. Ten were considered to provide the most reliable information, estimating the frequency of equine laminitis ranging from 1.5% to 34%. Previous publications estimating laminitis frequency were generally poor quality. Laminitis frequency varied

across publications however the publications included in this review focussed on many of the different underlying laminitis aetiologies and comparison of the frequencies between groups would be inappropriate. High-quality evidence-based studies are needed to estimate the true disease frequency in different equine populations. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible GSK1210151A for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics

have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of

bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in ACY-738 design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.”
“The technique for assisting renal blood circulation may be a useful therapeutic method in acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS), because renal ischemic dysfunction due to the reduced renal blood circulation is a powerful negative prognostic factor in ACRS. We constructed a circuit assisting renal arterial pressure and flow, and performed renal-selective blood perfusion (RSP) to the left kidney in a goat model of ACRS induced by right ventricular rapid pacing (n = 8), with the right kidney left intact as an internal control.

These animals develop marked adiposity and decreased glucose tole

These animals develop marked adiposity and decreased glucose tolerance relative to their control littermates, KK mice. The authors monitored glucose tolerance in KK-A(y) mice over time and observed a significant (P <= 0.05) age-dependent improvement (13.3% by 175 d of age and 36.4% by 212 d of age, relative to 85 d of age). During the same time period, body weight and food and water consumption were relatively constant. The authors also measured

plasma levels of endocrine hormones that are important in diabetes. Levels of insulin were approximately 8 times higher and levels of amylin 3 times higher in 220-d-old KK-A(y) mice than in 180-d-old mice, whereas levels of glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon and leptin remained relatively constant. These findings LY2835219 manufacturer suggest that KK-A(y) mice undergo an selleck chemicals llc age-dependent improvement of glucose tolerance when maintained on a normal diet for 25 weeks or longer, due in part to increases in plasma levels of insulin and amylin.”
“Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a 16.6 kb genome that encodes for 13 of the 100+ subunits of the electron transfer chain (ETC), whilst

the other subunits are encoded by chromosomal DNA. The ETC is responsible for the generation of the majority of cellular ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). mtDNA is normally inherited from the population present in the mature oocyte just prior to fertilisation. However, following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), mtDNA can be transmitted from both the donor cell and the recipient oocyte. This heteroplasmic transmission of mtDNA is a random event and does not appear to be related to the amount of mtDNA contributed by the donor cell. The distribution of mtDNA is randomly segregated between blastomeres and differentiating tissues, and therefore the mtDNA complement transmitted MK 5108 to offspring tissue cannot be predicted.

mtDNA divergence between the cytoplast and the donor cell in intra- and inter-specific crosses favours a slightly more diverse mtDNA haplotype. However, this is limited as interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) genetic divergence contributes to developmental failure. SCNT embryos demonstrate a plethora of aberrantly reprogrammed characteristics including the uncoordinated regulation of the mtDNA replication factors. This results in increased mtDNA copy number during preimplantation development and propagates the replication of donor cell mtDNA. These failures are likely to be a consequence of incompatible nuclear- and mtDNA -encoded proteins interacting within the ETC thus reducing ATP production. The outcomes would be similar to the severely debilitating or even fatal mtDNA diseases associated with genetic rearrangements to mtDNA or mtDNA depletion type syndromes and have serious implications for any form of karyoplast transfer approach. The only method to overcome the problems of heteroplasmy in SCNT embryos is to completely deplete the donor cell of its mtDNA prior to SCNT.

Orthotopic transplantation of CD133(+) cells led to the formation

Orthotopic transplantation of CD133(+) cells led to the formation of heterogeneous tumors

that were phenocopies of the original patient tumor. In this article, the authors discuss the complex regulation of CD133 expression in gliomas, its role in tumorigenesis, and its potential as a marker for targeted and personalized therapeutic intervention.”
“We analyzed the functional outcome of the interaction between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and natural killer (NK) cells. TAMs from ascites of ovarian cancer patients displayed an alternatively activated functional phenotype (M2) characterized by a remarkably high frequency and surface density of membrane-bound IL-18. Upon TLR engagement, TAMs acquired a classically activated functional phenotype (M1), released immunostimulatory cytokines (IL-12, soluble IL-18), and efficiently triggered the cytolytic GDC-0994 mouse activity of NK cells. TAMs also induced the release of IFN- from NK cells, which however was significantly lower compared with that induced by in vitro-polarized M2 cells. Most tumor-associated NK cells displayed a CD56bright, BEZ235 molecular weight CD16neg or CD56bright, CD16dim phenotype, and very poor cytolytic activities, despite an increased expression of the activation marker CD69. They also showed downregulation of DNAM-1, 2B4, and NTB-A activating receptors, and an altered chemokine receptor repertoire.

Importantly however, when appropriately stimulated, NK cells from the patients, including those cells isolated from ascites, efficiently killed autologous TAMs that expressed low, nonprotective levels of HLA class I molecules. Overall, our data show the existence of a complex tumor microenvironment in which poorly cytolytic/immature NK cells deal with immunosuppressive tumor-educated macrophages.”
“China faces the challenge of using limited farmland to feed more than 1.3 billion people. Accelerated urbanization has exacerbated this challenge by consuming a large quantity of high-quality farmland (HQF). It is therefore essential to assess the degree to which urban

expansion has preferentially consumed HQF, and discern the mechanism behind this. We found urban areas in Beijing to expand at speeds of 48.97 km(2)/year, 21.89 km(2)/year, Ferroptosis inhibitor 62.30 km(2)/year and 20.32 km(2)/year during the periods 1986-1995, 1995-2000, 2000-2005 and 2005-2020, respectively. We developed an indicator of HQF consumption due to urban expansion, representing the ratio of HQF consumed to its proportion of overall farmland, and found its values were 2.21, 1.57, 1.99 and 1.10 for 1986-1995, 1995-2000, 2000-2005 and 2005-2020, respectively. Thus, although HQF has been overrepresented in the farmland consumed by Beijing’s urbanization, this phenomenon has decreased overtime. Centralized expansion has contributed greatly to consumption of HQF. Topography and distances to urban and water bodies determine the relative consumption of HQF in urbanization. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

“Changes in cell density and cyst flux of Alexandrium tama

“Changes in cell density and cyst flux of Alexandrium tamarense, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin contents in shellfishes, and environmental parameters were measured in two stations in Daya Bay, South China Sea from March 2005 to July 2006. Vegetative cells of A. tamarense occurred sporadically; however, they presented abundantly during the winter months. Meanwhile, cyst flux reached its maximum level just Following the peak abundance of motile cells. The PSP contents in shellfish were generally low, but higher in winter with the maximum of 14,015 mu g SIX equiv./kg.

The majority of toxins were Nepicastat Metabolism inhibitor found in digestive glands, with a maximum of 66,227 mu g STX equiv./kg. There were significant positive relationships between toxin level and vegetative cell density and cyst flux. This indicates that vegetative cells and

cysts. of Alexandrium significantly influenced PSP level, and could be an important source of PSP toxins in shellfish during winter. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights this website reserved.”
“Ovaries from Rhode Island Red donors were transplanted orthotopically into White Leghorn recipients. At maturation, recipients were mated with Rhode Island Red roosters to test the origin of their ovaries, using plumage coloration as a marker. A chick with chimeric plumage coloration was produced, indicating mechanisms that produce follicles with both donor and recipient ovarian contents. This study suggests that ovarian transplantation could be useful for in vivo studies of cytological and molecular mechanisms involved

in avian folliculogenesis.”
“Background and Objective: Comparable data are sparse for inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in the Asia-Pacific region, and we aimed to establish a registry of patients with such diseases in the region. Methods: A network of neurologists in the Asia-Pacific Region was established to register patients with the targeted diseases. A standardized register form and relevant instructions in English, translated into the local GPCR Compound Library order language when needed, were prepared before the study start and used for data collection. Results: Eight study centres from different countries/areas participated in the study. In total, 857 patients with a validated diagnosis of different inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS were registered, 591 females and 266 males with a female-to-male ratio 2.2. The mean age at onset for all patients was 35.9 (SD: 12.9) years, significantly younger (p = 0.010) for females (35.1 years, SD: 12.6 years) than for males (37.

However, the exact mechanism for its neuroprotective effect is no

However, the exact mechanism for its neuroprotective effect is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective action of IRN against A beta(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Pretreatment with IRN significantly increased the cell viability, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase

and the extent of DNA fragmentation in A beta(25-35)-treated cells. IRN treatment was able to enhance the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3.. (p-GSK-3..). Natural Product Library mouse Lithium chloride blocked A.. 25-35 induced cellular apoptosis in a similar manner as IRN, suggesting that GSK-3 beta inhibition was involved in neuroprotective action

of IRN. Pretreatment with LY294002 completely abolished the protective effects of IRN. Furthermore, IRN reversed A.. 25-35 induced attenuation in the level of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response Selleck FDA-approved Drug Library element binding protein (p-CREB) and the effect of IRN could be blocked by the PI3K inhibitor. These experimental findings unambiguously suggested that the protective effect of IRN against A beta(25-35)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells was associated with the enhancement of p-CREB expression via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 beta signaling pathway.”
“Finding a better first antiretroviral regimen is one of the strategies used to improve span and quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. 891 patients were followed during 24 months or until interruption/abandonment of treatment, changing regimen or death. At the end of 6 months, 69% of the patients were still

being treated with the first regimen, 54% at 12 months, 48% at 18 months and Belnacasan solubility dmso 39% at 24 months. AZT-3TC-EFV was the most prescribed regimen and with the lesser discontinuation. NNRTI regimens showed high effectiveness and durability compared to PI regimens. Irregular medication dispensation was the only risk factor for failure/interruption of treatment in multivariate analyses. Intolerance/adverse effects were mainly responsible for first regimen discontinuation, followed by abandonment/non-adherence and virologic failure. Results showed significant difference between causes of interruption of first HAART with higher percentage of intolerance/adverse effects with PI regimens and higher immunologic failure with NNRTI regimens. Even with the availability of more potent and tolerable drugs, lack of adherence to HAART and high level of adverse effects are still the most important barriers to prolonged success of treatment. This study adds relevant information about durability and effectiveness of HAART in the first decade of its use in Brazil. (C) 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Studies in laboratory rodents are shedding light on the pathophysiology of testicular ageing and now suggest a complicated basis for age-related declines in testicular function.

Passive lower-limb cycling represents an elegant, cost-effective

Passive lower-limb cycling represents an elegant, cost-effective and widely accessible therapeutic strategy that may reduce the clinical cardiovascular burden imposed by spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders. Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes Z-DEVD-FMK supplier altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate

the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI

plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2x30minday(-1), 5daysweek(-1) for 4weeks beginning 6days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, Smoothened Agonist datasheet ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n=6 SCI and n=6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF beta(1)) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences A-1155463 in vitro in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen

deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGF beta(1) and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI.”
“Objective: Our objective was to report and describe a case of psychosocial short stature in an adolescent girl with psychotic features. Psychosocial short stature is a rare condition in which emotional stress or deprivation in childhood profoundly reduces growth, leading to persistent short stature. This disorder is variably known as psychosocial dwarfism, hyperphagic short stature or maternal deprivation dwarfism. In the literature, psychosocial short stature has not been associated previously with psychosis.

(C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH All rights reserved “
“This paper is

(C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“This paper is devoted to the equilibrium shapes of rotating liquid drops. Families of axisymmetric shapes are found using a perturbation technique for the governing nonlinear equation. Bifurcation and turning points are located by applying a special type of Hermite-Pade approximation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

Disparities in healthcare for the elderly are understudied, despite the increasing proportion of patients over 80 years of age. Advanced age is a principal risk factor for colorectal adenocarcinoma, but there are few data to guide treatment in the elderly patient population.\n\nMETHODS: We performed a retrospective review of prospectively gathered data on 10,433 patients diagnosed with primary colon tumors between 1998 and 2004. We compared demographics, stage at diagnosis, and initial treatment between Autophagy inhibitor price patients Younger than 80 years and

those age 80 years or older.\n\nRESULTS: Patients who were >= 80 years old DNA-PK inhibitor made up 30% of the database. Older patients were less likely to have colectomy for advanced or metastatic disease than younger patients. Patients who were >= 80 years of age had fewer lymph nodes removed than younger patients (11 vs 10, P <.01). Older patients were significantly less likely to receive chemotherapy for every stage of colon cancer than younger patients. When older patients did get chemotherapy, it was more likely to be with a single agent. Multivariate analysis revealed that predictors of receiving chemotherapy for patients >= 80 years of age include living in an urban county, younger age, and worse stage at diagnosis.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Older patients make up a large portion of the patients treated for colon cancer

and are treated less aggressively. While some of the treatment difference may be explained by medical factors, demographic factors affect treatment decisions as well. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In pregnant rats, a significant decrease in myometrial relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) expression, indicative of a functional relaxin withdrawal for activation of myometrial contractions, occurs in late gestation and during spontaneous labor. This coincides with DZNeP the highest level of circulating relaxin and a decrease in progesterone. We investigated the potential regulatory role of these two systemic factors on myometrial RXFP1 expression by examining the effects of the antiprogestin RU486 and a monoclonal antibody against rat relaxin (MCA1) in pregnant rats. Rats were injected with RU486 on Gestational Day (GD) 7, 16, or 19 and were killed on GD 8, 17, or 20. RU486 caused a significant reduction in myometrial RXFP1. Plasma progesterone and 17beta-estradiol levels were increased in RU486-treated animals compared with controls.

“The human bocavirus

(HBoV) has been recently iden

“The human bocavirus

(HBoV) has been recently identified by means of molecular screening techniques in respiratory tract secretions from children with acute respiratory tract disease. This virus, which belongs to the Parvoviridae family, has been detected worldwide with a 5 to 10% prevalence among children with upper or lower respiratory tract infections, essentially during the winter period. A seroepidemiological study has shown that almost all the children have antibodies to HBoV by the age of five years, and HBoV infection seems to be rare in adults. HBoV is often detected in association with other respiratory viruses. This virus has also been detected in stools, but its role in gastroenteritis has not been yet established. Virological

diagnostic of HBoV infection is based on the detection of viral DNA by PCR. Viral load determination by viral DNA quantitation in respiratory tract secretions could be a tool to differentiate between symptomatic HBoV infection and virus carriage. (C) 2008 Elsvier Masson SAS.”
“Objective: Surgical management of advanced ovarian cancer often requires low modified posterior pelvic exenteration (MPE) to achieved complete resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of MPE at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery (PCS) and interval cytoreductive selleck chemicals llc surgery (ICS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.\n\nMaterials and Methods: From 2001 to 2009, 63 patients underwent MPE for advanced ovarian cancer. We analyzed and compared surgical characteristics and postoperative courses between PCS and ICS.\n\nResults: Modified posterior pelvic exenteration was performed during PCS for 50 patients (79%) and during ICS for 13 patients (21%). Complete cytoreduction was achieved in 80% of patients (84% in the PCS group and 69% in the ICS group; ns). There was no significant difference between the PCS and ICS groups in the

type and the rate of standards or radical surgical procedures. Patients with ICS had a shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit (0.9 vs 2.7 days; P = 0.009), but there was no difference in the total length of hospitalization (P = 0.94). The global rate of postoperative selleck inhibitor complications was 76%. No differences were found between the 2 groups in digestive or extradigestive complications, iterative surgery, or interventional radiology procedures. The median overall survival was 49.4 months in the PCS group and 27.1 months in the ICS group (P = 0.27), and the median progression-free survival time in both groups was 20 months.\n\nConclusions: There was no difference in the occurrence of postoperative complications between PCS and ICS, especially in morbidity related to MPE. The specific morbidity of this surgical procedure remained low compared with the overall morbidity in cases of extensive surgery.”
“The role of trace elements in the lithogenesis of urinary stones is still debated.