6 to 4%, were the primary complications following stereotactic ab

6 to 4%, were the primary complications following stereotactic ablative therapy. Hence, the current evidence shows that stereotactic ablative therapy is a safe and effective procedure and should be proposed first to patients suffering from primary NSCLC unfit for surgery. However, the published evidence is quite limited, mainly based on small studies of < 100 patients. Moreover, so far there is no blind, prospective control, randomized study comparing these two techniques. Consequently, despite the encouragement of these preliminary results, they must be interpreted with caution.”
“In vertebrates, the gonad arises as a bipotential

primordium that can differentiate as a testis or ovary. Cells are initially primed to adopt either fate by balanced antagonistic signaling pathways and transcription networks. Sexual fate is determined by this website activating the testis or ovarian pathway and repressing the alternative pathway. A complex, dynamic transcription network underlies this process, as approximately half the genome is being transcribed during this period, and many genes are expressed in a sexually Idasanutlin mw dimorphic manner. This network is highly plastic; however, multiple lines of evidence suggest that many

elements of the pathway converge on the stabilization or disruption of Sox9 expression. The single gene mutational approach has led to the identification of similar to 30 additional genes involved in vertebrate sex determination. However, >50% of human disorders of sexual development (DSDs) are not explained by any of these genes, suggesting many critical elements of the system await discovery. Emerging technologies and genetic resources enable the investigation of the sex determination network on a global scale in the context of a variable genetic background or environmental influences. Using these new tools we can investigate how cells establish a bipotential state that is poised to adopt either sexual fate, and how they integrate multiple signaling and transcriptional

inputs to drive a cell fate decision. Elucidating the genetic architecture underlying sex determination in model systems can lead to the identification of conserved modules selleck chemicals correlated with phenotypic outcomes, and critical pressure points in the network that predict genes involved in DSDs in humans. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2012 doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1172 For further resources related to this article, please visit the .”
“The rates of distant metastases and tumor death in sebaceous carcinoma (SC) have been reported to be higher than those of other cutaneous carcinomas, such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), regardless of whether they occur in ocular or extraocular regions. Therefore, strict differentiation of SC from SCC and BCC is required.

The

length of this expansion region increased with decrea

The

length of this expansion region increased with decreasing pressure, going from similar to 8 cm at 5 mTorr to similar to 1 cm at 50 mTorr. MLN2238 inhibitor T-e was nearly independent of the axial position in the main plasma region and strongly decreased in the expansion region at lower pressures. The Cl-2 percent dissociation, tau(D), obtained from the calibrated Cl2 (306 nm)-to-Xe (828 nm) emission ratio, displayed behavior similar to that of n(e) and T-e. For example, at 5 mTorr, tau(D) was close to 100% near the wave launcher and similar to 70% at 0.5 cm from the end of the plasma column. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3574658]“
“Camellia reticulata is a well-known ornamental and oil plant that is endemic to southwest China. This species shows three cell ploidies, i.e., diploidy, tetraploidy and hexaploidy. We made the first investigation of genetic diversity and differentiation URMC-099 manufacturer of natural populations of C. reticulata, and 114 individuals from 6 populations

were sampled. Cytogeography results showed that ploidy is invariable within populations and evenly distributed. A relatively high level of genetic diversity was found in C. reticulata, both at the species level (PPB = 88.89%; H = 0.2809; I = 0.4278) and at the population level (mean PPB = 42.13%; mean H = 0.14; mean I = 0.21). We found a relatively low degree of differentiation among ploidies (G(ST) = 0.2384; AMOVA = 10.26%) and a relatively high degree of differentiation among populations selleck inhibitor (G(CS) = 0.3807; AMOVA = 48.75%). The high genetic diversity can be explained by its biological character, wide distribution and ploidies, and the special genetic structure can be ascribed to polyploid origin from hybridization with different Camellia spp. This information will be useful for the introduction, conservation and further studies of C. reticulata and related species.”
“Neuropsychological

impairment affects 40-65% of multiple sclerosis patients, mainly involving speed in information processing, attention, executive functions and memory. Deterioration occurs over time independently from disability and seems to correlate particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atrophy measures. Studies on therapies effective in controlling cognitive impairment are scanty. We found that intensive and specific training of attention, information processing and executive functions is significantly effective in ameliorating both neuropsychological treated functions and in reducing depression. Preliminary functional MRI data suggest that possible neural correlates of this neuropsychological training could be an exercise-induced activation of prefrontal and cingulate cortices.”
“The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro-, submicro-, and nano-crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied.

Over the last decade anticoagulants, such as dabigatran and rivar

Over the last decade anticoagulants, such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, have been developed and have shown superiority compared to warfarin for preventing stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF in large randomized trials. In addition, on account of the risk of thrombus formation Talazoparib price in the left atrial appendage (LAA), many nonpharmacologic approaches have been developed to reduce stroke risk in patients with AF who are not candidates for anticoagulant therapy. Surgical, epicardial, and endovascular techniques for LAA closure are being investigated currently. Both novel pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacologic

approaches for stroke prevention will be detailed in this review. (PACE 2012;XX:111)”
“We present a theoretical STAT inhibitor analysis of liquid viscosity sensors using ZnO and AlN thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBARs) with tilted polar c-axis orientations. Besides the thickness longitudinal mode, the tilted c-axis

orientation induces thickness shear mode in the resonator, which allows resonators operated in liquid medium without significant damping for sensory application. The equation for predicting electric impedance of shear mode film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBARs) with a viscous liquid loading was derived from the basic piezoelectric constitutive equations. The viscosity sensitivity of shear mode ZnO and AlN resonators was achieved by calculation of resonant frequency shift due to viscous liquid loading. In the simulation, it is assumed that all the resonators have 2 mu m thickness and 300 mu m x 300 mu m electrode area; three different liquids (water, acetone, and olive oil) were chosen as the liquid loadings; and different tilt c-axis angles for both

ZnO FBARs and AlN FBARs have been examined. It was found that the sensitivities of shear mode resonators to the three liquid loading are very close, and do not change much with the c-axis tilt angle with a value rang from 0.91e-3 to 0.97e-3 (kg m(-3) Pa.S)(-0.5) for ZnO FBARs and from 1.12e-3 to 1.13 e-3 (kg m(-3) Pa.S)(-0.5) for AlN FBARs. When the resonator’s mechanical quality factor (Q) is changed from 50 to 10 000, viscosity sensitivities are almost same. However, Q has a great effect on resonator impedance; and if Q is too low or the viscosity of the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pifithrin-alpha.html liquid is high, the maximum phase angle of the resonator will be less than 0, which makes excitation of the oscillation difficult if an oscillator circuit is used for sensor measurement. The results can be used for design and application of ZnO or AlN FBARs to monitor liquid viscosity. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3657781]“
“Identification and susceptibility to 8 selected antimicrobial agents of Klebsiella and Enterobacter bacterial species was studied in 15 marketed meat samples (chicken, turkey-hen, beef, sheep, pig, dromedary, ostrich, and fish).

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Depletion of t

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Depletion of the ovarian reserve is associated with reproductive senescence click here in mammalian females, and there is a positive relationship between the size of the ovarian reserve and the number of antral follicles on the surface of the ovary. Therefore, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the influence of stage of the estrous cycle, age, and birth weight on antral follicle counts (AFC) in beef cows and heifers. Pairs of ovaries were collected from crossbred beef cows at slaughter (n = 72) or at necropsy (n = 333; 0 to 11 yr of age); all visible antral follicles were counted, the ovaries were weighed, and stage of the estrous cycle

was estimated based on ovarian morphology. There was no influence of estimated stage of the estrous cycle on AFC (P = 0.36). There was a small but positive effect of birth weight on AFC [AFC = -1.7 +0.31(birth weight); P = 0.007, r(2) = 0.05]. When antral follicle counts were regressed on age, there was a quadratic effect of age such that AFC increased until 5 yr of NVP-BSK805 age and decreased thereafter [AFC = 12.9 + 9.0(yr) - 0.86(yr(2)); P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.22]. In a third experiment, crossbred beef heifers (n = 406; 353 to 463 d of age) at 3 locations were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography

on unknown day of the estrous cycle. Heifers were classified as low AFC (< 15 follicle, n = 84) or high AFC (> 24 follicles, n = 178). Whereas estimated stage of the estrous cycle did not influence AFC (P = 0.62), heifers classified as low AFC had smaller ovaries (P = 0.001), decreased find more birth weight (P = 0.003), and a decreased heifer pregnancy rate (P = 0.05) compared with heifers in the high AFC group.

From these results, we conclude that AFC in beef cows and heifers is influenced by birth weight and age but not by stage of the estrous cycle. In beef cows, the number of antral follicles increases to 5 yr of age and then begins to decline. This may indicate that a decrease in fertility due to decline of the ovarian reserve may begin earlier than previously thought in beef cows.”
“The aim of this study was to develop a cheap, pH-sensitive enteric coating of aspirin with biocompatible polymers. A novel approach was used to develop enteric coating from chitosan (CS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Solutions of CS and PVA (5 : 1 mol ratio) were mixed and selectively crosslinked with tetraethoxysilane. IR analysis confirmed the presence of the incorporated components and the existence of siloxane linkages between CS and PVA. The crosslinking percentage and thermal stability increased with increasing amount of crosslinker. The response of the developed coating in different media, such as water, pH (nonbuffer and buffer), and ionic media showed hydrogel properties.

Hence, an endogenous PGE(2)-EP4 system in the tubular epithelium

Hence, an endogenous PGE(2)-EP4 system in the tubular epithelium limits the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis by suppressing inflammatory responses. Kidney International (2012) 82, 158-171; doi: 10.1038/ki.2012.115; published online 18 April 2012″
“Background

Cases of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated

acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed.

Methods

We conducted active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus among children younger than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in hospitals, emergency departments, and outpatient clinical settings. The Selleckchem GDC-0994 children resided in one of three U.S. counties during the years 2009 and 2010. Fecal specimens click here were tested for norovirus and rotavirus. We calculated population-based rates of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis and reviewed billing records to determine medical costs; these data were extrapolated to the U.S. population of children younger than 5 years of age.

Results

Norovirus was detected in 21% of young children (278 of 1295) seeking medical attention for acute gastroenteritis in 2009 and 2010, with norovirus detected in 22% (165 of 742) in

2009 and 20% (113 of 553) in 2010 (P = 0.43). The virus was also detected in 4% of healthy controls (19 of 493) in 2009. Rotavirus was identified in 12% of children with acute gastroenteritis (152 of 1295) in 2009 and 2010. The respective rates of hospitalization,

emergency department visits, and outpatient visits for the norovirus were 8.6, 146.7, and 367.7 per 10,000 children younger than 5 years of age in 2009 and 5.8, 134.3, and 260.1 per 10,000 in 2010, with an estimated cost per episode of $3,918, $435, and $151, respectively, in 2009. Nationally, we estimate that the average numbers of annual hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits due to norovirus infection in 2009 and 2010 among U.S. children in this age Selleckchem Vorinostat group exceeded 14,000, 281,000, and 627,000, respectively, with more than $273 million in treatment costs each year.

Conclusions

Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, norovirus has become the leading cause of medically attended acute gastroenteritis in U.S. children and is associated with nearly 1 million health care visits annually. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)”
“The associations between physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle have not been carefully studied in past research, but may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these symptoms. The present study examines the day-to-day covariations among physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle.

Proper localization of pU(L)25 in infected cell nuclei required p

Proper localization of pU(L)25 in infected cell nuclei required pU(L)17, pU(L)32, and the major capsid proteins VP5 and VP23, but not the DNA packaging protein pU(L)15. The data suggest that VP23 or triplexes augment the pU(L)17/pU(L)25 interaction and that VP23 and VP5 induce conformational changes in pU(L)17 and pU(L)25, exposing epitopes that are otherwise partially masked in infected cells. These conformational changes can occur in the absence of DNA packaging. The data indicate that the pU(L)17/pU(L)25 complex requires multiple viral proteins and functions for proper localization

and biochemical behavior in the infected cell.”
“The aim of this study was to test a possible role of A5 neurons in the expression of the pressor and tachycardic responses to conditioned fear and restraint, two forms of psychological stress. Previous Fos studies have shown that the AZD1480 ic50 C1 adrenergic neurons and spinally projecting neurons in the vasopressor region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla are not activated by these two stressors, suggesting that these cardiovascular changes may be mediated by other premotor sympathetic (presympathetic) cell groups. The same studies also revealed that the A5 noradrenergic Poziotinib nmr group was one of the main presympathetic cell groups to be activated in response to these two stressors. Thus, we hypothesized that the A5 group could

mediate these cardiovascular responses. Conditioned fear and restraint were tested in rats implanted with radiotelemetric probes before and after retrograde lesion with the selective toxin anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-saporin bilaterally injected in the spinal cord at T2-T3. Six animals were selected that had the most extensive loss of spinally projecting catecholaminergic neurons: A5 (81%-95%) and rostral C1 (59%-86%, which would include most C1 bulbospinal neurons).

However, despite this major loss of noradrenergic and adrenergic presympathetic neurons, the magnitude of the cardiovascular response to conditioned fear and restraint was the same before and after the lesion. Associated behavioural changes were not affected either. The results indicate that A5 presympathetic neurons are not essential however for the expression of the tachycardic and pressor responses to conditioned fear and restraint. They also confirm that Cl bulbospinal neurons are not involved in these responses. The presympathetic neurons driving the tachycardic and pressor responses to conditioned fear and restraint must be elsewhere. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We created a hybrid adeno-associated virus (AAV) from two related rhesus macaque isolates, called AAVrh32.33, and evaluated it as a vaccine carrier for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type A influenza virus antigens.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved,”
“Influe

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved,”
“Influenza A virus (IAV) infection of epithelial cells

activates NF-kappa B transcription factors via the canonical NF-kappa B signaling pathway, which modulates both the antiviral immune response and viral replication. Since almost nothing is known so far about a function see more of noncanonical NF-kappa B signaling after IAV infection, we tested infected cells for activation of p52 and RelB. We show that the viral NS1 protein strongly inhibits RIG-I-mediated noncanonical NF-kappa B activation and expression of the noncanonical target gene CCL19.”
“Human biology is deeply integrated with the rotation of the Earth: healthy physiology is synchronized with circadian cycles, while unhealthy states are often marked by poor circadian coordination. In certain cancers including breast cancer, striking circadian rhythm dysregulation extends to endocrine, immune, metabolic, and cellular function. Disruption resulting from biological and behavioral influences has been linked with higher incidence and faster tumor progression in humans and animals. The hypothalamic SCN coordinates circadian events at the tissue and cellular level, partly via glucocorticoids that regulate genes involved in tumor

growth, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune cell trafficking, and cytotoxicity. We present a revision of our previously published model of circadian effects in cancer (Sephton and Spiegel, Evofosfamide mw 2003) based on evaluation of new data from divergent lines of investigation. Human clinical studies show circadian endocrine disruption may be accompanied by suppressed functional cellular immunity and overactive inflammatory responses that could promote

tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Animal data provide strong evidence of clock gene regulation of tumor cell growth. Tissue culture research demonstrates find more that biologically or behaviorally mediated down-regulation of clock gene expression can accelerate tumor growth. An integrated view suggests mechanisms by which circadian effects on tumor growth may be mediated. These include psychoneuroendocrine and psychoneuroimmune pathways, the relevance of which we highlight in the context of breast cancer. Taken together, data from clinical, systemic, cellular; and molecular research suggest the circadian clock is a tumor suppressor under both biological and behavioral control. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of a mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Recent studies demonstrated that inhibition of Drp1 provides neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the role of mdivi-1 in hippocampal neuron death after seizures induced by pilocarpine. Our data showed that pretreatment with mdivi-1 (1.25 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the neuronal death in hippocampus induced by seizures. This neuroprotective effect was dose-dependent.

This additional step led to the generation of 26 mg of enzyme tha

This additional step led to the generation of 26 mg of enzyme that was about 99% pure. This highly pure and active enzyme exhibited a M(r) = 144,933 by static light scattering supportive of a dimeric structure. It migrated as a two-band protein, each of equal intensity, on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the alpha (M(r) similar to 77,000) and beta (M(r) similar to 70,000) sGC subunits. NSC23766 order It showed an A(430)/A(280) = 1.01, indicating one heme per heterodimer, and a maximum of the Soret band at 430 nm indicative of a

penta-coordinated ferrous heme with a histidine as the axial ligand. The Soret band shifted to 398 nm in the presence of an NO donor as expected for the formation of a penta-coordinated nitrosyl-heme complex.

Non-stimulated sGC had k(cat)/K(m) = 1.7 X 10(-3) s(-1) mu M(-1) that increased to 5.8 x 10(-1) s(-1), mu M(-1) upon stimulation with an NO donor which represents a 340-fold increase due to stimulation. The novel combination of using the TIPS method for co-expression of a heterodimeric heme-containing enzyme, along with the application of a reproducible ligand affinity purification method, has enabled us to obtain recombinant human sGC of both the quality and quantity needed to study structure-function relationships. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs) a melatonin receptor agonist and a histamine antagonist JQ-EZ-05 concentration have all been approved as selleck chemicals hypnotics.

Beyond their differing mechanisms of action, they have differences in pharmacokinetics, and among the BzRAs differences in receptor subtype affinity and formulations, which provides the physician with broad options for tailoring therapy to each patient’s specific needs. Consistent with their specific pharmacokinetics and formulations, these Food and Drug Administration-approved hypnotics have been shown to improve sleep with no evidence of tolerance development in long-term use. In addition, emerging data indicate these drugs also improve aspects of daytime function. Their side effects are either associated with the direct sedating effects of the drugs, doses greater than clinical doses, or a combination with alcohol or other sedating drugs. Anxiolytic BzRAs, sedating antidepressants and antipsychotics have been used off-label as hypnotics. However, in the absence of information regarding their dose range for efficacy and safety, their use as hypnotics is ill-advised.”
“The phytopathogenic fungus Venturia inaequalis causes scab of apple. Once this fungus penetrates the plant surface, it forms a specialized body called a stroma between the inner cuticle surface and the epidermal cell wall. A novel V. inaequalis gene, cin1, is strongly up-regulated in the early stages of infection.

They had significantly lower stage and lower Fuhrman nuclear grad

They had significantly lower stage and lower Fuhrman nuclear grade than patients with tumors with a cystic change of 5% or less (each p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis a cystic proportion of more than 5% was a good prognostic indicator of cancer specific and progression-free survival (HR 0.221, p = 0.044 and HR 0.214, p = 0.004, respectively).

Conclusions: In patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma a cystic change comprising more than 5% of the tumor is a good independent predictor of survival.”
“Ubiquitin is a protein modifier that is conjugated to target proteins either BGJ398 supplier as a single moiety or as polyubiquitin chains. Over the past several years, an increasing number of ubiquitin ligases and ubiquitin-deconjugating

enzymes RepSox research buy have been identified; these modulate cell survival by degradative and non-degradative means. Mutations that affect ubiquitin-mediated signalling are tightly linked to various human pathologies including tumorigenesis. Unravelling how the ubiquitin-signal is conjugated,

edited and ‘read’ is crucial to understanding cellular processes such as endocytic trafficking, NF-kappa B signalling, gene expression, DNA repair and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize recent advances that start to elucidate how the ubiquitin message is used as a versatile tool to regulate apoptosis, for example in the conjugation of ubiquitin to caspases. This results in steric interference with substrate entry and allosteric conformational impairment of the catalytic pocket of the caspase.”
“Background: Depression is associated with increased risk of death among patients with coronary disease. Cardiovascular autonomic dysregulation may be one of the mechanisms by which depression exerts its effects on cardiovascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive symptoms are associated with low heart rate variability (HRV) and prolonged HR recovery after exercise testing in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: The Psychophysiological Investigation of Myocardial GSK2118436 Ischemia (PIMI) was a large,

multicenter study designed to assess psychological and physiological correlates of stress in patients with CAD. One hundred and eighty-dight patients with CAD as evidenced by at least 50% blockage of one major artery and a previous positive exercise stress test were included in this study. Patients included in this report were not taking beta blockers. Cardiovascular functioning was. assessed by a modified Bruce protocol treadmill stress test. Measures of psychological functioning including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), were also obtained. Results: BDI scores were negatively correlated with HR recovery (r = -0.15,p =.04). Depression scores accounted for 3.5% of the variance in HR recovery when controlling for participant age (p < .01). Depressive symptoms were related to two HRV indices (ultra-low frequency, high frequency).

In this trial 133 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and h

In this trial 133 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had a minimum followup of more than 15 years.

Results: Cancer specific survival was 81.9%, 79.5% and 76.7%, and progression-free survival with bladder preservation was 75.5%, 64.9% and 57.8% at 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively. Patient age had a negative impact on overall survival on univariate NVP-BSK805 mw (HR 0.842, p = 0.049) and multivariate analyses (HR

1.062, p = 0.000), and according to median and quartile age stratifications (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively). However, age did not have a negative impact on cancer specific survival even when following the same stratifications. Although progression and recurrence were concentrated during the first 3 years (70% and 65%, respectively), both steadily increased afterward. A followup schedule was developed according to this sequence of events.

Conclusions: Radical transurethral bladder tumor resection is a reliable therapeutic approach for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer after complete tumor resection and with negative biopsies of the tumor bed. These results are consistent in all age ranges.”
“Purpose:

Studies suggest lowering the threshold of the prostate specific antigen test in obese men due to the hemodilution effect but prostate specific antigen may be affected by prostate volume and insulin resistance, which also increase with obesity.

Thus, we examined the combined effect of these factors on prostate specific antigen.

Materials MK-4827 and Methods: We analyzed 3,461 Korean men 30 to 80 years old with prostate volume data available who underwent routine evaluation. We examined the effect of plasma volume, homeostatic model assessment index, prostate volume and body mass index on prostate specific antigen, and prostate specific antigen 4EGI-1 datasheet mass and mass ratio (total circulating prostate specific antigen protein per prostate volume) by the trend test and/or ANOVA after adjusting for age and/or prostate volume.

Results: Body mass index had positive associations with plasma volume, the homeostatic model assessment index and prostate volume (p for trend <0.01). Prostate specific antigen had a positive association with prostate volume and a negative association with plasma volume (p for trend <0.01) but not with homeostatic model assessment index. The adjusted R-2 of prostate volume vs prostate specific antigen was greater than for plasma volume vs prostate specific antigen while for body mass index vs prostate volume it was less than for body mass index vs plasma volume (0.0892, 0.0235, 0.1346 and 0.3360, respectively). Prostate specific antigen mass was not associated with plasma volume or body mass index but it was still associated with prostate volume after adjusting for plasma volume or body mass index (p for trend <0.01).