Hypertension that developed after nephrectomy was not an exclusio

Hypertension that developed after nephrectomy was not an exclusion criterion. Of 282 patients who donated between 1986 and 2000, 69 donors could not be contacted.

Sixty-nine donors were older than 65 years, 6 had diabetes mellitus, 1 had a history of coronary artery disease, 4 had malignancy and 5 had documented hypertension before nephrectomy, leaving 101 patients for comparison with the control group. Patients had to be at least 12 months post-nephrectomy and the median time post-donation was 5 years. The mean GFR of kidney donors was 75 mL/min, which was approximately 25 mL/min per Lenvatinib research buy 1.73 m2 (0.42 mL/min per 1.73 m2) less than that of controls. The frequency of CAC and mean calcification scores were similar for kidney donors (13.9%; 4.5 ± 22.6) and controls (17.2%; 13.2 ± 89.2). CAC was not associated with decreased GFR, and the correlation between CAC and GFR was not statistically significant. Kidney donors with calcification were more likely to be older (P = 0.003)

and male (P = 0.001). Age- and sex-adjusted analysis showed an association between greater parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (odds ratio 1.023; 95% CI: 1.001–1.045; P = 0.037) and CAC in kidney donors.25 Recognizing that a fixed lower limit of GFR does not Metformin datasheet adequately define donor acceptability (probably too low for young donors and too high for older donors), Thiel and colleagues developed calculations taking into account the life expectancy

of the donor – the Minimum Creatinine Clearance.8 Discussions with nephrologists and gerontologists in Switzerland led them to define a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 40 mL/min at age 80 years as adequate to maintain fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in the donor as well as maintaining adequate levels of erythropoietin and active Vitamin D. A second calculation was made targeting a CrCl of at least 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 at age 80 years as the absolute minimum acceptable for an elderly person (but possibly requiring some intervention Carnitine dehydrogenase to maintain normal, age-related quality of life). Using such a formula, a 30-year-old donor may require a CrCl of 123 mL/min per 1.73 m2 while the level for a 70-year-old may be of the order of 68 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Most of the evidence relating to renal function in living donors comes from retrospective cohort studies commonly of small size and with poor follow up (see Table 1). There is a lack of prospective long-term data regarding live donor renal function following donation, particularly in relation to consequences of donation in certain donor subgroups such as those with reduced GFR.

Stimulation of the Notch 2 receptor pathway could then promote ES

Stimulation of the Notch 2 receptor pathway could then promote ESAMhi DC differentiation locally. It is interesting to contemplate this issue in light of the very recent finding that the chemokine receptor EBI2 (GPR183) and its ligand 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol are critical for the positioning of CD4-expressing CD11bhi DCs in the spleen [23]. Finally, as the observations by Beijer et al. were focussed on the spleen, it will be important to examine whether CD11bhi DCs in the lymph nodes or tissues, such as dermal DCs or interstitial

DCs, differentiate with comparable requirements for vitamin A and RA. While the mode-of-action remains to be further www.selleckchem.com/products/bmn-673.html defined, the findings of Beijer et al. [13] presented within this issue of the European Journal of Immunology clearly highlight a previously unappreciated role for RA signaling in regulating the diversity of splenic DCs. Thus, vitamin A appears to play an ever-growing role in DC development, acting in both the intestinal and splenic compartment. The authors would like to thank Dr. Ken Shortman (Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research) for insightful discussions hypoxia-inducible factor pathway and sharing of unpublished data. A.T.S. and S.B. are both supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. “

relatively small number of laboratories in Australia and New Zealand have consistently published on murine models of nematode immunology, and the parasite species principally used are Heligmosomoides bakeri (previously Heligmosomoides polygyrus),

Strongyloides ratti, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Toxocara canis. These research groups have made significant contributions to both fundamental immunology and more specialized issues in host–parasite relationships. Topics addressed include immune regulation, including the expression and control of Type 2 cytokines and the responses induced, innate and adaptive host-protective mechanisms, antigen expression and immune evasion strategies utilized by parasitic helminths. This review cAMP addresses the last 30 years of research and identifies areas in which major progress can be made, given appropriate resources. Parasites of sheep, cattle and other livestock species have traditionally been a major focus of research into helminths in Australia and New Zealand, in keeping with the economic importance of primary industries to our countries. Although not the subject of this study, some work has been carried out on parasites of humans and domestic livestock in rodent models, for example: Fasciola hepatica (1,2), Echinococcus granulosus (3–5) Schistosoma (6,7) and the nematodes Haemonchus contortus (8), Strongyloides stercoralis (9–11) and Ancylostoma ceylanicum (12,13).


90 Panobinostat A major component of IFN-α/β-driven antiviral properties is the marked induction of

genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, particularly expression of class I genes and associated endocytic proteins involved in proteolysis and peptide loading. By engaging this pathway in an in vivo model of antigen cross-priming, Tough and colleagues91,92 demonstrated that IFN-α/β enhanced CD8+ T-cell expansion as well as cytolytic activity, which may explain the strong adjuvant effect of IFN-α/β on protein vaccination strategies. While the individual roles of IL-12 and IFN-α/β can be assessed in isolation in vitro, in vivo studies have revealed unique roles for IFN-α/β and IL-12 that depend upon priming conditions and the class of pathogen. Initial studies demonstrated that

the induction of IFN-α/β by CpG stimulation led to antigen-presenting cell-dependent T-cell proliferation, which required IFN-α/β signalling within the responding T cells.93 These early studies did not directly compare IFN-α/β with the powerful inflammatory effects of IL-12. However, comparing primary CD8+ responses with various pathogens, Murali-Krishna and colleagues94 demonstrated that IFN-α/β signals were required for CD8+ expansion in response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), but less so in response to vaccinia virus or Listeria monocytogenes infections.44 Based on this observation, it was postulated that antigenic load may contribute to CD8+ dependence on IFN-α/β for full expansion, as LCMV viral titres are much PLX4032 solubility dmso higher during the peak of the infection than vaccinia virus titres. Furthermore, a recent study demonstrated Thalidomide that CD8+ responses to Trypanosoma cruzi were completely independent of IFN-α/β signalling.95 This is somewhat surprising given the dependence on IFN-α/β during cross-priming reported by Tough and colleagues. Nonetheless, all of these reports highlight the potential for IL-12 and IFN-α/β to significantly regulate CD8+ effector

responses, which were originally reported to be IL-12- and STAT4-independent. Interleukin-12 and IFN-α/β may also play distinct roles in regulating CD8+ T-cell memory development. First, although IL-12 has been reported to play a positive role in generating CD8+ effector cells, it seems to have an inverse role in generating memory cells. Pearce et al.96 recently demonstrated that the kinetics and magnitude of the CD8+ memory response to L. monocytogenes were significantly enhanced in IL-12Rβ2−/− cells. This observation correlated with enhanced CD8+ memory in T-bet knockout mice, as IL-12 has been reported to positively regulate T-bet expression.97,98 Moreover, as cells expand in response to antigen stimulation, the enhanced expression of T-bet driven by IL-12 generates populations of terminally differentiated cytotoxic effector cells.

Two studies have found differential expression of miRNAs during A

Two studies have found differential expression of miRNAs during AR of kidney allografts. One study characterized the association between intrarenal miRNAs and clinicohistological

status of renal allografts.74 A subset of 17 miRNAs, out of 365, was found to be differentially expressed in AR biopsies compared with normal allograft biopsies. The altered expression of 6 of the 17 miRNAs identified was validated with quantitative analysis. Impressively, they reported that AR can be predicted accurately using intragraft levels of miR-142-5p (100% sensitivity and 95% specificity) or miR-155 (100% sensitivity and 95% specificity). In addition, miRNA levels were evaluated in isolated PBMC and human renal tubular epithelial cells. Some of the miRNAs found to be increased in AR were also expressed in PBMC. This indicates that cellular infiltration of immunological cells may explain the changes in miRNA expression. Using a similar PD98059 in vitro approach, Sui et al. reported 20 miRNAs that were differentially expressed, of which 12 were downregulated and 8 upregulated in AR, when compared with normal allograft biopsies.75 The next challenge in this research is to determine if changes in miRNA expression are due to AR alone, or due to other factors such as renal function, viral infection status and time since transplantation. A growing number of studies have found several human viruses such

as cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Y 27632 virus (EBV) and BK virus that encode viral miRNAs and their specific expression can be associated with different phases of viral infection. Furthermore, there is differential expression of EBV-encoded miRNAs in peripheral blood cells of EBV Ceramide glucosyltransferase carriers (latent infection) and

patients with acute EBV infection.76 This might provide a diagnostic test to differentiate active viral infection from carriage that is important in the management of renal transplant patients.76–79 Further research is needed to examine the role and function of these miRNAs in the pathophysiology of the infection. Recent progress in miRNA research presents opportunities for understanding kidney diseases, including identification of new diagnostic biomarkers. The potential value of miRNAs as biomarkers for human cancer research has been demonstrated and may provide more accurate tumour classification than mRNA analysis.80 MiRNA profiles offer some important potential advantages over standard mRNA or other protein-based profiles. MiRNAs appear to be very stable in tissues and biological fluids, including serum and are protected from endogenous RNase by virtue of their small size and perhaps by packaging within exosomes.81 In addition, the tissue-specific nature of miRNA expression makes them ideal candidates for biomarkers.82 The total number of human miRNAs, estimated to be between 700 and 1000, is considerably smaller than the number of protein-coding mRNAs (about 22 000).

This study demonstrated that when comorbidity and acute start wer

This study demonstrated that when comorbidity and acute start were adjusted for in the final analysis, a survival advantage for either modality was not apparent. Limitations: Once again, IWR-1 concentration due to the observational nature of this study, a modality selection bias needs to be considered in the final interpretation of results. The study follow up was only for 24 months and during the years of 1993 and 1994 before any recent advances in PD technology. Dialysis adequacy data were not collected on either group for comparison. Haemodialysis

and peritoneal dialysis: comparison of adjusted mortality rates according to the duration of dialysis (NECOSAD).  The NECOSAD study performed by Termorshuizen et al.6 was a large multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study observing 1222 new patients commencing dialysis over a 4-year period in the Netherlands. Data were collected on RRF, primary renal disease, comorbidities, dialysis efficiency, nutritional status, Hb and albumin at dialysis commencement and stages throughout the study period of 4 years. Subgroups https://www.selleckchem.com/products/XL184.html were analysed according to age, gender, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). On average, the HD cohort was older, had more comorbid

conditions, lower Hb and poorer RRF. No significant difference in serum albumin was found. Unadjusted mortality rates were significantly greater in the HD group, particularly in the first 12 months after commencing dialysis and stayed relatively stable up until the fourth year of observation. The PD group experienced time-related increase in mortality over the 4 years.

There were no substantial differences in the intent-to-treat or as-treated analyses. After adjustment, the relative risk (RR) of death for HD compared with PD patients was not statistically significant up until 12 months, but did show a PD advantage. However, a RR disadvantage with PD was discovered after 2 years of follow up. Subgroup analysis: For patients aged <60 years without diabetes, there was no difference in survival between PD and HD during the 4-year follow enough up. For the younger cohort with diabetes, there was a statistically higher mortality rate for HD patients in the first 2 years. Regardless of diabetic status, the 2–4 year analysis presented a survival advantage in favour of HD. This HD survival advantage in the 2- to 4-year analysis was demonstrated for all patients >60 years regardless of gender, diabetic status or CVD status. Conclusion: Long-term use of PD, especially in the elderly, is associated with an increase in mortality. Further studies are needed to explore the possible survival benefit in those PD patients making a timely switch to HD therapy. Limitations: Possible selection bias given in the study is observational in nature. The contribution of dialysis adequacy was not analysed in terms of PD or HD survival.

Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset

Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They PS-341 in vitro are made available as submitted by the authors. “
“We hypothesized that

the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) T cells was involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The expression profile of 270 human miRNAs in T cells from the first five RA patients and five controls were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Twelve miRNAs exhibited potentially aberrant expression in RA T cells compared to normal T cells. After validation with another 22 RA patients and 19 controls, miR-223 and miR-34b were over-expressed in RA T cells. The expression levels of miR-223 were correlated positively with the titre of rheumatoid factor (RF) in RA patients. Transfection of Jurkat cells with miR-223 mimic suppressed Crizotinib insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and transfection with miR-34b mimic suppressed cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) protein expression by Western blotting. The protein expression of IGF-1R but not CREB was decreased in RA T cells. The addition of recombinant IGF-1-stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 production by activated normal T cells, but not RA T cells. The transfection

of miR-223 mimic impaired IGF-1-mediated IL-10 production in activated normal T cells. The expression levels of SCD5, targeted by miR-34b, were decreased in RA T cells after microarray analysis. In conclusion, both miR-223 and miR-34b

were over-expressed in RA T cells, but only the miR-223 expression levels were correlated positively with RF titre in RA patients. Functionally, the increased miR-223 expression could impair the IGF-1-mediated IL-10 production in activated RA T cells in vivo, which might contribute to the imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. “
“We set out to determine whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) improves in vitro fertilization (IVF) success rates in women with a difficult history of multiple (≥2) prior IVF failures and /or ‘unexplained’ infertility. A total of 229 women with multiple IVF failures (3.3 ± 2.1) and/or unexplained infertility (3.8 ± 2.7 years) were given IVIG on the day of egg retrieval, and the subsequent IVF success rates Adenosine triphosphate were compared with published success rates from the Canadian database (CARTR). The pregnancy rate per IVIG-treated cycle was 60.3% (138/229), and the live birth rate per IVIG-treated cycle was 40.2% (92/229). This is a significantly higher success rate compared to the Canadian average (30% live birth rate; CARTR statistics from 2010; P = 0.0012). In cases where a single embryo was transferred, pregnancy rate using IVIG was almost twofold the CARTR pregnancy rate [(61%(20/33) to 34.9% (428/1225)]. In cases where two high quality (≥Grade 3) day 5 blastocysts were transferred, nearly a 100% pregnancy rate was achieved using IVIG (30/31).

4 mg once daily[19] compared with doxazosin 0 8 mg once daily [19

4 mg once daily[19] compared with doxazosin 0.8 mg once daily.[19] Alfuzosin could enhance the NO-mediated relaxant influence of PDE5 inhibitor on the same smooth muscle targets by blocking α-1 adrenergic receptors and reducing the sympathetic tone in penile, prostatic, bladder neck smooth muscles.[20] Both experimental and clinical evidence support this concept. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, alfuzosin showed no proerectile effect by itself but enhanced the number and amplitude of erections induced by apomorphine.[21] The addition of alfuzosin 10 mg once daily to tadalafil has

been shown to improve ED in 71% of patients who were initially considered to be non-responders to tadalafil.[22] Thus, a combination of alfuzosin and tadalafil could enhance the beneficial effects of these drugs on MK-1775 datasheet LUTS and ED without increasing the side-effects. In our study, combination therapy was found to be superior to monotherapy with alfuzosin or tadalafil for treating BPH with LUTS, in terms of efficacy on IPSS including quality of life and PVR. The efficacy of combination therapy on Qmax was similar to that of alfuzosin but better

than that of tadalafil. Likewise, the efficacy of combination therapy on EDS was Selleck Gemcitabine similar to that of tadalafil but better than that of alfuzosin. Monotherapy also had a modest benefit in improving LUTS and sexual function. In our study, two patients in the tadalafil group developed occasional headache. Three patients developed occasional headache and two patients developed dizziness (in whom tadalafil dose was reduced to 5 mg/day) in the combination group and all the patients completed

the follow-up in the study. In the study by Liguori et al.[23] six patients out of 66 dropped out of the study because of adverse effects: three in the alfuzosin group (dizziness, constipation), one in the tadalafil group (back pain and headache), and two in combination group (myalgia, dizziness, sensation of heaviness). Incidence of adverse effects in our study was more with combination DOK2 therapy but not severe enough to withdraw from the trial. Thus, combination therapy can be considered safe for use in patients with LUTS provided specific contraindications for use of alpha-blockers and PDE5 inhibitors are followed properly. The limitation of our study was the fact that we did not include a placebo arm. Another limitation was the relatively short-term follow-up of the patients. However, 3 months duration has generally been used as a reasonable follow up to study the efficacy and safety profile of drugs used for LUTS.

These cells were then incubated at a ratio of 40 : 1


These cells were then incubated at a ratio of 40 : 1

with 51Cr-labelled B16 or B16FasL cells for 4 hr at 37°. For minimal and maximal lysis, cells were Selleck p38 MAPK inhibitor incubated with medium or 5% Triton-X-100, respectively. Lytic activity was measured by 51Cr release with the formula: % lysis = [(sample − min)/(max − min)] × 100. B6 mice were injected i.p. with 0·5 mg of PC61 or GL113 antibodies 4 days and 1 day before s.c. injection of 0·5 × 106 B16-FasL cells. Twenty-four hours later, the skin area including the tumour cells was dissected, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Total RNA was reverse transcribed using Superscript III (Invitrogen), and subsequently cDNA was amplified in triplicate Cobimetinib by real-time PCR using 1 × Platinum SYBR Green qPCR SuperMix (Invitrogen) with primers for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), CXCL1/KC or CXCL2/MIP-2. Messenger mRNA levels were normalized relative to GAPDH mRNA expression. The average C(t) values were taken from three mice per group and data are presented as gene expression in PC61-treated mice relative to control GL113-treated mice. Primer pairs were as follows: GAPDH, 5′-TGACCTTGCCCACAGCCTTG-3′ (sense) and 5′-GAACGGGAAGCTTGTCATCA-3′ (anti-sense): CXCL1/KC, 5′-CTCAAGAATGGTCGCGAGGCT-3′ (sense) and 5′-GCACAGTGGTTGACACTTAGTGGTCTC-3′ (anti-sense); CXCL2/MIP-2 5′-CCACTCTCAAGGGCGGTCAAA-3′ (sense) and 5′-TACGATCCAGGCTTC-CCGGGT-3′

(anti-sense). We previously found that B16FasL cells are rejected more efficiently by C57BL/6 (B6) mice when Treg cells are partially depleted by in vivo administration of CD25-specific mAbs.9 Furthermore, this effect is attributable to the ability of Treg cells to suppress innate immune responses.9 To characterize the Nabilone nature of the innate response inhibited by Treg cells, we injected mice partially depleted of Treg cells and control mice with B16FasL cells and assessed the response to this whole cell challenge at early time-points thereafter. We first performed histological analyses to study the cellular

infiltrate at the non-palpable B16FasL inoculation site. B6 mice treated with depleting CD25-specific mAbs (PC61) or non-depleting control mAbs (GL113) were injected s.c. with 105 live B16FasL, then 4, 24 and 96 hr after tumour injection mice were killed and the injected skin was removed for histology. Tissue was embedded in paraffin and 5-μm sections were cut at 300-μm intervals throughout the skin. Sections were stained with H&E to locate the midsection of the tumour inoculation site (Fig. 1a–d). A large amount of cell death was observed at each inoculation site, as indicated by the lack of cellular cohesion and the presence of fragmented nuclei (Fig. 1b,d). Analyses at these early time-points revealed the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate evident within 24 hr of tumour cell inoculation and which was significantly larger in the PC61-treated group (Fig. 1c,d) compared with the GL113-treated group (Fig.

“T cell recognition of gliadin from dietary gluten is esse

“T cell recognition of gliadin from dietary gluten is essential for the pathogenesis of coeliac disease (CD). The aim of the present study was to analyse whether gliadin-specific T cells are detectable in the circulation of children with newly diagnosed coeliac disease by using a sensitive carboxfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)

dilution method. Peripheral blood CD4+ T cell responses were analysed in 20 children at diagnosis of CD and compared to those in 64 healthy control children carrying the CD-associated Olaparib human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or -DQ8 alleles. Deamidated gliadin (gTG)-specific T cells were detectable in the peripheral blood of more than half the children with CD (11 of 20, 55%) compared to 15 of 64 (23·4%) of the control children (P = 0·008). Proliferative responses to gTG were also significantly stronger in children with CD than in controls (P = 0·01). In contrast, T cells specific to

native gliadin were detectable at comparable frequencies in children with CD (two of 19, 10·5%) and controls (13 of 64, 20·3%). gTG-specific T cells had a memory phenotype more Apitolisib cell line often than those specific to native gliadin in children with CD (P = 0·02), whereas controls had similar percentages of memory cells in both stimulations. Finally, gTG-specific CD4+ T cells had a higher expression of the gut-homing molecule β7 integrin than those specific to the control antigen tetanus toxoid. Collectively, our current

results demonstrate that the frequency of circulating memory CD4+ T cells specific to gTG but not native gliadin is increased in children with newly diagnosed CD. Coeliac disease (CD) is a T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine, and is mediated by intestinal T cells that recognize peptide epitopes of gluten in the context of disease-associated human leucocyte antigen for (HLA)-DQ molecules [1,2]. The highest risk for CD is associated with the presence of the DQ2 molecule, encoded by the DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 alleles [3]. More than 90% of patients are positive for HLA-DQ2, and most of those without DQ2 express the DQ8 molecule, encoded by the DQA1*03 and DQB1*0302 alleles [3]. In the gut mucosa, ingested oral gluten is deamidated by tissue transglutaminase (TTG). In turn, this deamidation enhances the immunogenicity of gluten by increasing the affinity between deamidated gliadin (gTG) epitopes and DQ2 and DQ8 molecules [4–6]. Gluten-specific T cell responses have been studied mainly on lymphocytes from small intestine biopsy samples [1,5,7–9], but they can also be detected in the peripheral blood. The frequency of these specific T cells in the circulation of CD patients is low, and studies have been performed mainly after oral gluten challenge in order to increase the number of circulating gliadin-specific cells in vivo[10–12].

Adult neurogenesis, a dramatic form of adult brain circuitry plas

Adult neurogenesis, a dramatic form of adult brain circuitry plasticity, has been implicated in physiological brain function and appears to be of pivotal importance for certain forms of learning and memory. In selleck inhibitor addition, failing or altered neurogenesis has been associated with a variety of brain diseases such as major depression, epilepsy and age-related cognitive decline. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the basic

biology underlying the neurogenic process in the adult brain, focusing on mechanisms that regulate quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs. In addition, we discuss how neurogenesis influences normal brain function, and in particular its role in memory formation, as well as its contribution to neuropsychiatric diseases. Finally, we evaluate the potential of targeting endogenous NSPCs for brain repair. The brain is challenged

every day by new experiences that have to be integrated into previously acquired knowledge and skills. Changes in neural function and subsequent connectivity are referred to as neural plasticity. It was believed for a long time that experience-induced changes of neural networks could only affect existing neuronal cells (i.e. cells that were generated during embryonic or early postnatal development). This central dogma was based on the idea that the brain is too complex an organ to allow for the generation and subsequent integration

of newborn neurones, especially in the adult. However, initial AZD6244 ic50 evidence dating back to the 1960s, which was debated for decades and finally accepted in the mid-1990s, showed that the STK38 adult mammalian brain contains substantial numbers of neurogenic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that retain the ability to generate new neurones throughout life [1–4]. Thus, these seminal findings challenged previously held concepts about brain function and added a novel level of complexity to our understanding of adult neural plasticity. However, the process of adding new neurones into the preexisting neural circuitry, called adult neurogenesis, is not widespread throughout the brain but rather limited to two main neurogenic areas: the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles where NSPCs divide and give rise to cells that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into distinct types of olfactory neurones; and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) where NSPCs generate cells that differentiate into newborn granule cells (substantial amounts of neurogenesis have been identified in these two brain regions in adult rodents and non-human primates; the evidence for adult neurogenesis in humans will be discussed below) [5–7].