Because the content of CCSSA items resembles the content of the i

Because the content of CCSSA items resembles the content of the items on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK), CCSSA is intended to be a tool for students to help assess whether they are prepared for Step 2 CK and to become familiar with its content, format, and pacing. Purposes: This study selleck examined the relationship between performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners (R) CCSSA and performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (R) Step 2 CK for U.S./Canadian (USMGs) and international medical school students/graduates (IMGs). Methods: The study included 9,789 participants who took CCSSA prior to their first Step 2 CK attempt. Linear and logistic regression

analyses investigated the relationship between CCSSA performance and performance on Step 2 CK for both USMGs and IMGs. Results: CCSSA scores explained 58% of the variation in first Step 2 CK scores for USMGs and 60% of the variation for IMGs; the relationship was somewhat different for the two groups as indicated

by statistically different intercepts and slopes for the regression lines based on each group. P5091 purchase Logistic regression results showed that examinees in both groups with low scores on CCSSA were at a higher risk of failing their first Step 2 CK attempt. Conclusions: Results suggest that CCSSA can provide students with a valuable practice tool and a realistic self-assessment of their readiness to take Step 2 CK.”
“Adhesion proteins are responsible

for the structural integrity of epithelial tissue and in tumors this integrity is often lost, resulting in a disorganization of the tissue. In the present study the complexity of the invasive front of colon carcinomas was correlated with cell adhesion protein expression and with polymorphisms in their genes. A complexity index was constructed from 32 colon carcinomas using computer-assisted morphometry estimating fractal dimension and tumor cell clusters followed by tree analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, occludin and claudin 2 was used for assessment of protein expression. Genetic screening of tissue from the tumor invasion front with laser microdissection was JQ1 research buy performed using SSCP and DNA sequencing. Adhesion protein distribution was significantly disturbed in most carcinomas. A single mutation in the gene of beta-catenin was found but there was no correlation between protein expression and genetic polymorphism. Nor was there any correlation between the complexity of the invasive border and protein distribution or genetic alterations. The results indicate that the complexity of colon carcinoma invasion is not dependent on genetic derangements in the genes of adhesion proteins or the protein distribution. Rather, aberrations in the function of other proteins related to the adhesive proteins could be responsible.

The suggestion that the RNA sequence variation was likely to affe

The suggestion that the RNA sequence variation was likely to affect disease susceptibility

prompted us to investigate with a range of algorithms the amino acid variants reported to be present in the identified peptides to determine if they might be disease-causing. Results: The predictive qualities of the different algorithms were first evaluated by using nonsynonymous single-base nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) datasets, using independently established data on amino acid variants in several proteins as well as data obtained by mutational mapping URMC-099 and modelling of binding sites in the human serotonin transporter protein (hSERT). Validation of the used predictive algorithms was at a 75% level. Using the same algorithms, we found that widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences were predicted to impair the function of the peptides in over 57% of cases. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a proportion of edited RNAs which serve as templates for protein synthesis is likely to modify protein function, possibly as an adaptive survival mechanism in response to environmental modifications.”
“Objective: To examine the comparative effectiveness selleck chemicals llc of inhaled long-acting beta-agonist (LABA), inhaled corticosteroid

(ICS), and ICS/LABA combinations. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort design of patients older than 12 years with asthma diagnosis in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to evaluate asthma-related morbidity measured by oral corticosteroid (OCS) initiation within 12 months of initiating LABAs, ICSs, or ICSs/LABAs. Asthma severity 12 months before drug initiation (use of OCSs, asthma-related hospital or emergency department visits, and number of short acting betaagonist CB-839 research buy prescriptions) and during follow-up (short-acting betaagonist prescriptions and total number of asthma drug classes) was adjusted as a

time varying variable via marginal structural models. Results: A total of 51,103 patients with asthma were followed for 12 months after receiving first prescription for study drugs from 1993 to 2010. About 92% initiated ICSs, 1% initiated LABAs, and 7% initiated ICSs/LABAs. Compared with ICSs, LABAs were associated with a 10% increased risk of asthma exacerbations requiring short courses of OCSs (hazard ratio [HA] 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.18). ICS/LABA initiators were 62% less likely than ICS initiators (HR 0.38; 95% Cl 0.12-0.66) and 50% less likely than LABA initiators to receive OCS prescriptions for asthma exacerbations (HR 0.50; 95% CI 0.14-0.78). Conclusions: In concordance with current asthma management guidelines, inhaled LABAs should not be prescribed as monotherapy to patients with asthma. The findings suggest the presence of time dependent confounding by asthma severity, which was accounted for by the marginal structural model.

Three studies provided data to be used in a statistical model bas

Three studies provided data to be used in a statistical model based on tests of interactions. Statistical significance of the effect of preferences on treatment outcomes was not found. Included studies were not powered for tests of interaction, and only two (17%) studies described a preplanned analysis for treatment preference. Four (33%) trials did not show evidence of selective reporting bias. Additionally, authors used heterogeneous methods to measure patients’ preferences.\n\nConclusion: Methodological limitations of the available evidence suggest that it might be early Galunisertib to conclude whether

patients’ preferences influence the findings of RCTs evaluating musculoskeletal conditions. Future studies should use standardized methods to measure patients’ preferences and then individual studies can be pooled in a meta-analysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Aims. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) gene polymorphisms play important roles in regulating immunological reactions and may be associated with pulmonary tuberculosis:However, the relationship between the MCP-1 -2518 gene polymorphism and susceptibility

to spinal tuberculosis remains unknown. We undertook this study to investigate the relationships between MCP-1 promoter 2518 genotype frequency and allele polymorphisms and susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis in a Chinese Han population. Methods. Patients with spinal tuberculosis SB525334 in vitro and healthy volunteers were enrolled between December 2004 and December 2010. MCP-1 -2518 polymorphisms in both groups Selleck Sonidegib were detected using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. MCP-1 genotype was analyzed in all patients. Differences in genotype frequencies between

groups were compared using chi(2) tests. Results. A total of 208 patients with spinal tuberculosis and 210 healthy volunteers were included. The distribution frequencies of MCP-1 -2518 GG, GA and AA genotypes were 36.1, 50.9 and 13.0%, respectively, in the case group and 25.2, 53.8 and 21.0%, respectively, in the control group (p smaller than 0.05). MCP-1 -2518 GG genotype was significantly associated with the onset of spinal tuberculosis (OR = 2.306, 95% CI = 1.273-4.178). The G and A allele frequencies were 61.5% and 38.5%, respectively, in the case group, and 52.1% and 47.9% in the control group (p smaller than 0.05), the allele “G” of MCP-1 -2518 showed an association with an increased risk for spinal tuberculosis: OR = 1.777, 95% CI = 1.053-2999, p = 0.03 in the dominant model; OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.097-2.544, p = 0.016 in the recessive model. Conclusions. The MCP-1 -2518 GG genotype and presence of the G allele may be associated with susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population. (C) 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

This arrangement introduced CBFM approaches named fisher-led, com

This arrangement introduced CBFM approaches named fisher-led, community-led and women-led approach. A wider range of local institutional arrangements

as community based organizations (CBOs) have been established through participatory process with legal entity. Now, the CBOs as local institutions and fishers are more empowered in participation of fishery management under co-management arrangement The study reveals that there is still lack of institutional arrangement to be achieved at optimum level. This paper presents and assesses the empowerment status of the fisher communities in inland openwater fisheries under co-management arrangement in Bangladesh through Factor analysis and regression model. This study might have policy implication BEZ235 datasheet to replicate the community based

fishery management approach to promote empowerment for better management. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century selleck chemicals life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that

UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce killed but metabolically Ro-3306 in vivo active microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat biological warfare in the future.

santomea and D yakuba revealed that the strong D santomea enhan

santomea and D. yakuba revealed that the strong D. santomea enhancer activity evolved from a weak ancestral activity. Because each mutation on the path from the D. yakuba/santomea ancestor to modern-day

D. santomea contributes to the newly derived optic lobe enhancer activity, we sought here to use this system to study the path of evolution of enhancer sequences. We inferred likely paths of evolution of this enhancer by observing the transcriptional output of all possible intermediate steps between the ancestral D. yakuba/santomea enhancer and the modern D. santomea enhancer. Many possible paths had epistatic and cooperative effects. Furthermore, we found that several paths significantly increased ectopic transcriptional activity this website or affected selleck existing enhancer activities from which the novel activity was co-opted. We suggest that these attributes highlight constraints that guide the path of evolution of enhancers.”
“Chronic wounds represent an aberrant biochemistry that creates a toxic proteolytic milieu which can be detrimental to the healing process. Rebalancing the wound microenvironment and addressing elevated protease activity (EPA) could therefore help facilitate healing. To understand how clinicians currently diagnose and manage excessive proteolytic activity, 183 survey responses from US wound specialists were collated and analysed to find out their perceptions on the role of proteases.

The majority of respondents (>98%) believed proteases were important in wound healing and that a point-of-care (POC) protease test could be useful. This study yielded a low response rate (71%, n = 183); however, there were adequate data to draw significant conclusions. Specialists perceived that fibrin, slough, granulation tissue and rolled wound edges could indicate

EPA. About 43% of respondents, however, failed to give a correct response when asked to review photographs to determine if excessive protease activity was present, and VX-661 the perceived visual signs for EPA did not correlate with the wounds that had EPA; no statistical differences between professions were observed. Respondents chose debridement, wound cleansing and advanced therapies as important in reducing excessive protease activity. It was concluded that specialists have a need for POC diagnostic tests. On the basis of the responses to wound photos, it was determined that there were no visual cues clinicians could use in determining excessive protease activity. Additional research is recommended to evaluate the efficacy of a POC diagnostic test for protease activity and the treatments and therapies applied when EPA is found.”
“In this paper, a comparative study of three proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) models is performed in order to choose the best model for its integration in the modelling of the hybrid propulsion system of a tramway.

6 degrees C higher than rectal temperature (38 0

+/- 0 7

6 degrees C higher than rectal temperature (38.0

+/- 0.7 degrees C, p < 0.01). Survival at endpoint (7/11 vs. 4/4) and average survival time (134 +/- 64 vs. 180 min) were greater for both ACS+ and ACS in comparison to Standard Dressing. The wound temperature with ACS was reduced with greater blood to product ratios Selleck Selisistat and this pattern was paralleled with in vitro measurements. Conclusions The lower heat release with ACS+ compared to ACS was confirmed in an animal model and ACS+ had similar efficacy in arresting bleeding when compared to Standard Dressing.”
“Magalhaes CB, Riva DR, DePaula LJ, Brando-Lima A, Koatz VL, Leal-Cardoso JH, Zin WA, Faffe DS. In vivo anti-inflammatory action of eugenol on lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. J Appl Physiol 108: 845-851, 2010. First published January 14, 2010; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00560.2009.-Eugenol, a methoxyphenol component of clove oil, suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression, while eugenol dimers prevent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation and inflammatory cytokine

expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Our aim high throughput screening compounds was to examine the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. Mice received saline [0.05 ml intratracheally (it), control (Ctrl) and eugenol (Eug) groups] or Escherichia coli LPS (10 kappa g it, LPS and LPSEug groups). After 6 h, mice received saline (0.2 ml ip, Ctrl and LPS groups) or eugenol (160 mg/kg selleck chemicals ip, Eug and LPSEug groups). Twenty-four hours after LPS injection, pulmonary

resistive (Delta P1) and viscoelastic (Delta P2) pressures, static elastance (E(st)), and viscoelastic component of elastance (Delta E) were measured. Lungs were prepared for histology. In parallel mice, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected 24 h after LPS injection. TNF-alpha was determined by ELISA. Lung tissue expression of NF-kappa B was determined by EMSA. Delta P1, Delta P2, E(st), and Delta E were significantly higher in the LPS group than in the other groups. LPS mice also showed significantly more alveolar collapse, collagen fibers, and neutrophil influx and higher TNF-alpha levels and NF-kappa B expression than the other groups. Eugenol treatment reduced LPS-induced lung inflammation, improving lung function. Our results suggest that eugenol exhibits in vivo anti-inflammatory action in LPS-induced lung injury.”
“Background: The proposed introduction of the CAB (circulation, airway, breathing) sequence for cardiopulmonary resuscitation has raised some perplexity within the pediatric community. We designed a randomized trial intended to verify if and how much timing of intervention in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation is affected by the use of the CAB vs. the ABC (airway, breathing, circulation) sequence.\n\nPatients and methods: 340 volunteers, paired into 170 two-person teams, performed 2-rescuer healthcare provider BLS with both a CAB and ABC sequence.

MethodsWe conducted

the first nationwide survey of triple

MethodsWe conducted

the first nationwide survey of triple A syndrome. Identified mutants were expressed as GFP-fusion proteins in cultured cells. ResultsTwo new patients were identified, and 1 had a novel mutation (p.Ser182fsX19). All mutant proteins tested were mislocalized from NPC to cytoplasm. ConclusionsThe most consistent neurological manifestation of triple A syndrome in Japanese patients was progressive bulbospinal muscular atrophy with both upper and lower motor neuron involvement, which mimicked motor neuron disease, similar to that seen in patients in Western countries. The identification of the new patients suggests that more cases are undiagnosed in Japan. Muscle Nerve48: Vadimezan inhibitor 381-386, 2013″
“Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic

diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum MK-2206 ic50 DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon

dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany. (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Prior studies of the elasmobranch rectal gland have demonstrated that feeding induces profound and rapid up regulation of the gland’s ability to secrete concentrated NaCI solutions and the metabolic capacity to support this highly ATP consuming process. We undertook LY2835219 the current study to attempt to determine the degree to which up regulation of mRNA transcription was involved in the gland’s activation. cDNA libraries were created from mRNA isolated from rectal glands of fasted (7 days post-feeding) and fed (6 h and 22 h post-feeding) spiny dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias), and the libraries were subjected to suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) analysis. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was also used to ascertain the mRNA expression of several genes revealed by the SSH analysis. In total the treatments changed the abundance of 170 transcripts, with 103 up regulated by feeding, and 67 up regulated by fasting. While many of the changes took place in ‘expected’ Gene Ontology (GO) categories (e.g.

The composite primary outcome of neonatal death related to HIE wi

The composite primary outcome of neonatal death related to HIE with worsening multiorgan dysfunction despite maximal treatment, and the presence of post-hypothermia brain MRI abnormalities consistent with hypoxic-ischemic brain

injury, were compared between the infants who received PB before initiation of hypothermia (PB group, n = 36) and the infants who did not receive PB before or during hypothermia PXD101 (No PB group, n = 32). Forward logistic regression analysis determined which of the pre-hypothermia clinical and laboratory variables predict the primary outcome.\n\nResult: The two groups were similar for severity of asphyxia as assessed by Apgar scores, initial blood pH and base deficit, early neurologic examination, and presence of an intrapartum sentinel event. The composite primary outcome was more frequent in infants from the PB group (PB 78% versus No PB 44%, P = 0.006, odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 12.8). Multivariate analysis identified only

the PB receipt before find more initiation of hypothermia (P = 0.002, odds ratio 9.5, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 39.5), and placental abruption to be independently associated with a worse primary outcome.\n\nConclusion: PB treatment before cooling did not improve the composite outcome of neonatal death or the presence of an abnormal post-hypothermia brain MRI, but the long-term outcomes have not yet been evaluated. Journal of Perinatology (2012) 32, 15-20; doi:10.1038/jp.2011.41; published online 28 April 2011″
“BACKGROUND: Following the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), there is an increasing NVP-LDE225 nmr demand for wheat grain for liquid biofuel in the UK. In order to enhance productivity of the bioethanol industry, good quality wheat must be used.\n\nBACKGROUND: Following the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), there is an increasing demand for wheat grain for liquid biofuel in the UK. In order to enhance productivity of the bioethanol industry, good quality wheat must be used. RESULTS: A total of 84 grain samples comprising 14

varieties collected from 11 sites in two harvest years were analysed for a range of grain quality parameters and ethanol yield (EY). The grain quality parameters studied were starch and protein concentration, specific weight, grain density, packing efficiency, thousand-grain weight (TGW), grain length, width, length/width ratio and hardness index. Regression analysis was used to establish the relationships between grain quality parameters and EY. Apart from grain length and density, all grain parameters had significant relationships with EY. In the order of importance, protein concentration, TGW, packing efficiency and specific weight showed good relationships with EY. All other parameters, including starch concentration, showed a poor correlation with EY. EY and the relationship with the grain parameters were affected more by environment than by variety.

InvE is normally repressed at 30 degrees C because of decreased m

InvE is normally repressed at 30 degrees C because of decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, but rodZ mutants markedly increase invE-mRNA stability. Importantly, the inhibition of InvE production by RodZ can be genetically separated PR-171 molecular weight from its role in cell-shape maintenance, indicating that these functions are distinguishable. Thus, we propose that RodZ is a new membrane-bound RNA-binding protein that provides a scaffold for post-transcriptional regulation.”
“Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos) are known to cause matrix ionization effects during the analysis of biological samples (i.e. plasma, urine, etc.) in LC-MS/MS.

In general, such matrix effect is directly related to an insufficient sample clean-up of the biofluids. In addition to GPCho; design of ionization source and/or LC also plays a very important role in matrix effects. In this research paper, different types of matrix effects, i.e. ion suppression or enhancement were observed in differently designed ion sources coupled with different LCs, from the same molecule,

acamprosate (ACM). under the same chromatographic conditions. ACM was analyzed in a negative polarity in electrospray ionization interface using Z-spray and orthogonal spray ion source design. The analyte showed almost complete ion suppression in see more the Z-spray ionization source coupled with UPLC/HPLC, whereas there was very little ion enhancement in the orthogonal spray ionization source coupled with HPLC. In both the cases different GPChos were responsible, as evident from the presence of m/z 815.4 in Z-spray ion source and m/z 759.0 in orthogonal spray ion source. Hence, this approach can be used to evaluate the matrix effects in plasma samples during development and validation of LC-MS/MS method of drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrixes. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Physiological and pathological roles for small non-encoding

miRNAs (nnicroRNAs) PKC412 chemical structure in the cardiovascular system have recently emerged and are now widely studied. The discovery of widespread functions of miRNAs has increased the complexity of gene-regulatory processes and networks in both the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, it has recently been shown that miRNAs are implicated in the regulation of many of the steps leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. These findings represent novel aspects in miRNA biology and, therefore, our understanding of the role of these miRNAs during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is critical for the development of novel therapies and diagnostic interventions. The present review will focus on understanding how miRNAs are involved in the onset and development of cardiovascular diseases.”
“Background: Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood.

Results: We identified 52 trials (n = 12

006) that me

\n\nResults: We identified 52 trials (n = 12

006) that met our selection criteria. The pooled all-cause mortality during treatment was significantly higher in the group receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating therapy than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.29). Compared with no treatment, use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents led to clinically detectable improvements in disease-specific measures of quality of life. it also reduced see more the use of blood transfusions (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.73). However, it led to an increased risk of thrombotic events (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.24) and serious adverse events (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.25).\n\nInterpretation: Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with cancer-related anemia improved some disease-specific measures of quality of life and decreased the use of blood transfusions. However, it learn more increased the risk of death and serious adverse events. Our findings suggest that such therapy not be used routinely as an alternative to blood transfusion in patients with anemia related to cancer.”
“This paper describes a software package, named sigTOOL, for processing biological signals. The

package runs in the MATLAB programming environment and has been designed to promote the sharing of laboratory-developed software across the worldwide web. As proof-of-concept of the design of the system, sigTOOL has been used to build an analysis application for dealing with neuroscience data complete with a user-friendly graphical user interface which implements a range of waveform and spike-train analysis functions. The interface allows many commonly used neuroscience data FK506 file formats to be loaded (including those of Alpha Omega, Cambridge

Electronic Design, Cyberkinetics Inc., Molecular Devices, Nex Technologies and Plexon Instruments). Waveform analysis functions selectable from the interface support waveform averaging (mean and median), auto- and cross-correlation, power spectral analysis, coherence estimation, digital filtering (feedback and feedforward) and resampling. Spike-train analyses include interspike interval distributions, Poincare plots, event auto- and cross-correlations, spike-triggered averaging, stimulus driven and phase-related peri-event time histograms and rasters as well as frequencygrams. User-developed additions to sigTOOL that are archived and distributed electronically will be added to the sigTOOL interface on-the-fly, without the need to modify the core sigTOOL code.