In addition, exogenous cGMP caused greater inhibition of CVH nociceptors ( Figure 5Bi and Bii). In preparations where the colonic mucosa had been removed, the inhibitory effect of exogenous non−cell permeant cGMP was more potent, dose-dependent, and occurred at lower concentrations of cGMP ( Figure 6A, B, and C). We include a new post-hoc longitudinal responder analysis, using the US Food RG7422 datasheet and Drug Administration’s recommended abdominal responder criterion,28
from a 26-week phase III trial of oral, once-daily administration of linaclotide vs placebo in 805 IBS-C patients. The percentage of patients achieving at least a 30% reduction in abdominal pain compared with baseline was statistically significant and clinically meaningful for each of the 26 weeks of treatment with linaclotide compared with the placebo. A ≥30% reduction in abdominal pain compared with baseline was reported by >50% of selleck chemicals llc linaclotide-treated patients by week 3, increased to >60% of linaclotide-treated patients by week 7, and was sustained at approximately
70% of linaclotide-treated patients for the remainder of the 26 weeks of treatment (Figure 7A). This study provides strong evidence for a direct analgesic mechanism of action, whereby linaclotide inhibits colonic nociceptors via a GC-C/extracellular cGMP pathway, to reduce colonic nociception and abdominal pain. This novel, previously unreported, pathway suggests linaclotide is able to exert its beneficial effects directly on abdominal sensory symptoms, independent of improvements in bowel movement frequency and function. We have demonstrated that linaclotide inhibits the mechanical responsiveness of splanchnic colonic
nociceptors, which have high-activation thresholds to mechanical stimuli. This finding is important, as these afferents have endings distributed throughout the length of the colon,30 express large quantities of algesic channels and receptors,21, 22, 27, 36 and 37 and become mechanically hypersensitive23 and hyperexcitable24 and 25 in various preclinical models of chronic visceral pain. These in vitro findings translate in vivo as mice administered linaclotide MRIP have a reduced capacity to detect noxious CRD, as indicated by the reduction in activated DH neurons within the thoracolumbar spinal cord. In particular, we observed fewer activated neurons in the superficial lamina of the DH, which is the major termination zone for nociceptive afferents and consists of nociception-specific neurons responding to noxious inputs from afferent fibers. Notably, the potency of these in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects are greatest in a model of CVH, where linaclotide fully reversed the chronic mechanical hypersensitivity in vitro, and linaclotide pretreatment in vivo reduced signaling of noxious CRD within the thoracolumbar spinal cord to normal, healthy levels.