2B) and 48 hours (Fig 3D) after induction of HBx expression Fur

2B) and 48 hours (Fig. 3D) after induction of HBx expression. Furthermore, 4pX cells displayed a significant increase in HBx-dependent S phase entry 24 hours (Supporting

Fig. 2B)17 but not 48 hours (Fig. 3D) after induction of HBx expression. Additionally, transient transfection of Chang liver cells with the HBV wild-type and HBx-defective replicons did not induce changes in the cell cycle profile (Fig. 3C). Given that HBx promoted PTTG1 accumulation without significantly affecting cell cycle (p34X and HBV complete replicon-transfected Chang liver cells), these results indicated that the HBx-promoted PTTG1 accumulation was not dependent on cell cycle modifications. It is known that HBx transcriptionally induces the expression of viral and cellular genes by activating promoter regulatory sequences.2 To determine HM781-36B solubility dmso whether HBx modulates PTTG1 transcription, its messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were measured by means of quantitative RT-PCR

in p34x and 4pX cells. PTTG1 mRNA levels were unaffected by HBx expression in both p34X (Fig. 4A) and 4px (Supporting Fig. 3) cells. As expected,25 RT-PCR analysis revealed increased TNF-α mRNA levels upon induction of HBx (Fig. buy PD0325901 4A). Additionally, we transiently transfected Hela cells with both pPTTG1–cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), an expression vector in which PTTG1-CFP transcription is controlled by the CMV promoter, and pHBx-hemagglutinin

(HA) plasmids. Western blot analysis using an anti–green fluorescent protein (GFP) Ab revealed that PTTG1-CFP was clearly accumulated in HBx-transfected cells (Fig. 4B). Interestingly, the effect of HBx was not observed when cells were cotransfected with the control plasmid pECFP-N1, coding only for the CFP protein. These results were further confirmed by cotransfecting Hela cells with wild-type or HBx-defective HBV replicons along with the pPTTG1-CFP vector (Fig. 4C). These results strongly suggested that PTTG1 accumulation induced by HBx was not mediated by transcriptional activation. We next examined whether HBx-induced PTTG1 up-regulation could be explained through changes on protein stability by analyzing Metalloexopeptidase PTTG1 levels after blocking protein synthesis with cycloheximide. Western blot analysis revealed that PTTG1 protein half-life increased in p34X cells after induction of HBx expression when compared with noninduced cells (Fig. 4D,E). Taken together, these results indicated that HBx promoted PTTG1 accumulation by modulating its degradation. Phosphorylation of PTTG1 leads to its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation.10 Thus, we analyzed the levels of phosphorylated forms of PTTG1 in p34X cells treated with okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor, and/or MG132, a proteasome inhibitor.

Radioisotopic synovectomy

using a pure beta emitter (phos

Radioisotopic synovectomy

using a pure beta emitter (phosphorus-32 or yttrium-90) is highly effective, has few side effects, and can be accomplished in an outpatient setting. (Level 4) [[18, Talazoparib price 19]] A single dose of clotting factor is often sufficient for a single injection of the isotope. Rehabilitation is less intense than after surgical synovectomy, but is still required to help the patient regain strength, proprioception, and normal functional use of the joint. If a radioisotope is not available, chemical synoviorthesis with either rifampicin or oxytetracycline chlorhydrate is an appropriate alternative [[20, 21]]. Chemical synoviorthesis involves weekly injections until the synovitis is controlled. These painful injections require the administration of intra-articular xilocaine a few minutes before injection of the sclerosing agent, oral analgesics

(a combination of acetaminophen/paracetamol and an opioid), and a dose of clotting factor concentrate prior to each injection. The low cost of the chemical agent is offset by the need for multiple injections of factor concentrate. Rehabilitation, as described for radioactive synovectomy, is recommended. Surgical synovectomy, whether open or arthroscopic, requires a large supply of clotting factor for both surgery and the lengthy period of rehabilitation. The procedure must be performed by an experienced team at a dedicated hemophilia treatment center. It is only considered when other less invasive and equally effective procedures fail. Chronic hemophilic arthropathy can develop any time from the second decade of life Vadimezan manufacturer (and sometimes earlier), depending on the severity of bleeding and its treatment. The process is set in motion by the immediate effects of blood on the articular cartilage during hemarthrosis [[1, 2]] and reinforced by persistent chronic synovitis and recurrent hemarthroses, resulting in irreversible damage. With advancing cartilage loss, a progressive arthritic condition develops that includes: secondary soft tissue contractures muscle atrophy angular deformities Deformity can also be enhanced by contracture following muscle bleeds or neuropathy.

Loss of motion is common, with flexion contractures causing the most significant functional mafosfamide loss. Joint motion and weight bearing can be extremely painful. As the joint deteriorates, swelling subsides due to progressive fibrosis of the synovium and the capsule. If the joint becomes ankylosed, pain may diminish or disappear. The radiographic features of chronic hemophilic arthropathy depend on the stage of involvement. Radiographs will only show late osteochondral changes. [[22, 23]] Ultrasound or MRI examination will show early soft tissue and osteochondral changes. [[24-26]] Cartilage space narrowing will vary from minimal to complete loss. Bony erosions and subchondral bone cysts will develop, causing collapse of articular surfaces that can lead to angular deformities. Fibrous/bony ankylosis may be present.

We consider that rapid gastric emptying might be a more important

We consider that rapid gastric emptying might be a more important factor than delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD. “
“We appreciated the article by Boursier et al.1 about the comparison of diagnostic algorithms for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C. The purpose of combining unrelated noninvasive methods is to increase the performance of each individual method and to minimize the number of liver biopsies needed. The authors found an impressive 0% rate in liver biopsies needed with a synchronous combination of FibroScan and FibroMeter. We believe that this article deserves several comments. Boursier et al. refer to SAFE biopsy as intended for binary diagnosis. The authors state that their

synchronous algorithm guarantees a more precise classification of liver fibrosis because it provides six diagnostic classes. We wish to underline that SAFE biopsy algorithms have been modeled to address the main clinical endpoints Talazoparib order for decision-making: significant fibrosis (≥F2 by METAVIR) and cirrhosis, as defined by international guidelines.2, 3 Importantly, some of the classes (F2 ± 1 and F3 ± 1) included in the classification of Boursier et al. imply a delta of up to two stages of fibrosis in the same class. This may make it difficult to distinguish between stages that have a different selleck chemical management in clinical practice, such as F1 versus

F2 or F3 versus F4. An advantage of SAFE biopsy in clinical practice is that it uses APRI as an initial screening test, which has virtually no cost and global availability. A recent meta-analysis concluded that APRI should still be regarded as a first-line screening test for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C in countries with limited health care resources.4 Another important issue is that SAFE biopsy algorithms adopt widely available and validated tests. When compared with APRI and FibroTest, FibroMeter has been less evaluated independently. Moreover, FibroMeter is not licensed in as many countries as FibroTest.5 Finally, even though liver

biopsy is an imperfect standard, it is still regarded as the Hydroxychloroquine in vitro standard of reference by international guidelines.2 We conclude that combination algorithms are excellent tools to screen liver fibrosis in hepatitis C in clinical practice. The choice of the algorithm could be based on local resources, the clinical setting, and clinician preference. Whether combination algorithms could completely avoid liver biopsy deserve further independent investigation. Giada Sebastiani*, Alfredo Alberti†, * Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada, † Department of Histology, Microbiology, and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. “
“A 68-year-old man was admitted to our department with synchronous rectal and right colon cancers. A preoperative chest-abdomen computed tomography scan was negative for metastases or liver disease (Fig.

Unless the orthopedic surgeon is a core team member and is in fre

Unless the orthopedic surgeon is a core team member and is in frequent communication with the rest of the hemophilia team, the physiotherapist may also need to function as a ‘translator’ between the surgeon and the hematologists and nurses: what does the surgery involve, what does this mean for coagulation therapy during and after the surgery, how long will the sutures remain intact, what are the complications to watch for, etc. A. L. Forsyth Even with the continued advancements in practice, in terms of preventing and treating bleeding episodes, arthropathy persists as a complication in persons with hemophilia (PWH) and PWH with inhibitors (PWHWI). It has been reported

that PWHWI will likely have a greater degree of arthropathy, greater difficulties with mobility and significantly more joint pain [12]. Progression

Lenvatinib clinical trial of arthropathy to a painful, severe stage can be an indication for EOS to address resultant pain and functional limitations. Although it is not without challenges and requires careful planning, EOS is fairly common in PWH in countries where it is available. EOS has been previously limited in PWHWI due to the potential risk of uncontrolled bleeding [13,14]. However, EOS is increasingly being performed in PWHWI [13–17] with the use of bypassing agents in comprehensive hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs). In both instances, it is important that PWH and PWHWI are cared for by medical professionals who understand the fundamental differences MI-503 ic50 in the treatment particularities of PWH and PWHWI versus working with patients in the general ZD1839 cost population who are undergoing these EOS procedures. The physiotherapist is an

integral member of the comprehensive, multidisciplinary HTC team, for the PWH and the PWHWI, involved during the planning through recovery phases, and can provide valuable intervention during all stages. Unfortunately, not all HTCs have a dedicated physiotherapist and, therefore, may consider referring patients to the hospital physiotherapy department or community physiotherapist for treatment. Additionally, if a HTC does have an experienced physiotherapist on their team, due to the rarity of PWHWI, they may not yet have accrued enough experience in working with this subgroup of bleeding-disorders clients. In general, physiotherapists who are experienced in working with orthopedic patients commonly treat patients before and after EOS. However, the type of treatment provided to a PWH and a PWHWI can be very different from that of a patient in the general population. Standard physiotherapy treatment approaches could prove hazardous and pose threats in terms of increased musculoskeletal bleeding complications and delayed wound healing, in PWH [18–19]. In turn, these complications can lead to more serious problems such as infection, loss of the prosthesis and even amputation [20].

We obtained three

We obtained three check details founders (TG-8, TG-9, and TG-15) with serum levels of IL-22 reaching ≈6,000 pg/mL. All of the experiments described below were obtained from the TG-8 founder (referred to as IL-22TG). Many of these experiments were confirmed using TG-9 or TG-15, thus demonstrating that our findings are due to the transgene, not the unique founder line of mice. Figure 2A shows that high levels of serum IL-22 were detected in the three founders of transgenic lines but not in wild-type (WT)

mice. Serum levels of IL-22 were detected as early as 2 weeks in IL-22TG after birth and reached the peak level (≈6,000 pg/mL) at 1 month (Fig. 2B). Such levels of serum IL-22 were maintained for the lifetime of mice and did not change during the backcrossing with C57BL/6 mice. IL-22 is known to induce expression of acute phase proteins (e.g., serum

amyloid A [SAA]) and multiple signaling pathways in hepatocytes.2, Crizotinib price 20 Here we observed that IL-22TG mice had a trend to higher levels of serum SAA compared with WT mice, with a statistical difference being reached at age 2 months (Fig. 2B). In addition, microarray data revealed that hepatic RNA expression of SAA, as well as several other acute phase proteins, were elevated in IL-22TG mice versus WT mice (Table 1). All IL-22TG mice grew normally without obvious adverse phenotypes except a lower body weight after 5 months of age compared with WT mice (Fig. 2C). Food intake was similar in both IL-22TG and WT mice (data not shown). In addition, at 2 months of age, both IL-22TG and WT mice had Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 a similar liver weight and liver/body weight ratio; at 5 months of age, IL-22TG mice had similar liver weights but a higher liver/body weight ratio compared with WT mice. In contrast, at 12 months of age, IL-22TG mice had a lower liver weight but similar liver/body weight ratio compared with WT mice. Western blot analyses

revealed that phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) but not pSTAT1 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation was elevated in the livers of IL-22TG mice versus WT mice (Fig. 2D). Activation of pSTAT3 was also detected in the kidney but not the spleen from IL-22TG mice (Fig. 2D), indicating that the circulating IL-22 had effects beyond the tissue in which it is being produced. The lack of effects in the spleen was not surprising, as normal mouse lymphocytes/leukocytes lack IL-22R1.4 Histology analyses showed that all of the organs from IL-22TG mice had a normal histology except for slightly thicker epidermis and minor inflammation in the skin compared with WT mouse skin (Fig. 2E, Supporting Information Fig. 2a). No obvious inflammation or necrosis was observed in the organs obtained from IL-22TG mice.

There was no marked reduction of the annual FVIII consumption in

There was no marked reduction of the annual FVIII consumption in older patients. The average annual FVIII consumption from year to year is relatively constant in patients with severe haemophilia APO866 molecular weight A. Adults receive about 150 000 IU per patient which translates to approximately 2000 IU kg−1 bodyweight in adults: values were 2065 IU kg−1 bodyweight in 2005 vs. 2141 IU kg−1 bodyweight in 2009. The attitude

of clinicians to plasma-derived and recombinant products in eastern Germany is reflected in the pattern of FVIII consumption (Fig. 2). In 2005, approximately 80% of adults were treated with plasma-derived products, whereas more than 40% of adults received recombinant products in 2009, indicating

a slow uptake of newer agents. This is explained by historical practice. Until German reunification in 1991, patients with haemophilia in the eastern region of Germany were mainly INK128 treated with cryoprecipitate, so the shadow of the HIV catastrophe bypassed that region. In adults, the switch from cryoprecipitate to plasma-derived FVIII products was so successful that clinicians and patients were satisfied with this approach. In the eastern part of Germany, 64% of patients undergo individualized prophylactic treatment. These regimens differ from those in other countries: [13] prophylaxis in our cohort was ID-8 defined as at least one FVIII infusion per week without a bleed. To put our data in context we compared them to findings from the United Kingdom Haemophilia Centres Doctors’ Organisation [14]. The FVIII consumption in the UK varies widely across different regions and does not increase in specific age groups but is increasing per year in

all age groups [14]. Overall consumption of FVIII from 2005 to 2009 in eastern parts of Germany was relatively constant, at approximately 44 million IU year−1. The rate of consumption in eastern regions of Germany appears broadly comparable to that in the UK, although it should be noted that in the UK recombinant FVIII is used more frequently [14]. Several conclusions can be drawn from these data. First, at least in the eastern part of Germany, consumption of FVIII was similar from 2005 to 2009, suggesting no trend towards its increased use. Second, individualized prophylactic treatment in adult patients is common, with nearly two-thirds of patients receiving this strategy. Lastly, in our cohort there was no reduction in FVIII consumption in higher age groups, in contrast to reports from the UK. These findings raise yet more questions.


to KC-depleted mice, animals treated with cyclosp


to KC-depleted mice, animals treated with cyclosporine were protected against alcohol diet-induced liver injury and inflammation, however the protection was only partial. Livers of alcohol-fed C57Bl6 mice showed significant elevation of TLR4, MyD88, Calcineurin, PLC, PKC, and MAPKp38 compared to control diet-fed counterpart. Calcineurin and NFAT activity, which are suggestive of active calcium-dependent signaling, was significantly higher in livers of alcohol-fed compared to control diet-fed animals. Both clodronate and cyclosporin treatments lead to significant inhibition of liver DNA-binding NFAT activity in alcohol diet-fed mice. NFAT was detected in find more both KCs and Hpt; there were no differences in the NFAT total protein levels between control diet- and alcohol diet-fed animals in Hpt. In contrast, alcohol feeding lead to significant upregulation of NFAT expression in KCs compared to control diet. In vitro, using RAW264.7 as KC model, chronic alcohol did not affect NFAT protein expression but led to significantly higher LPS/TLR4-triggered NFAT DNA-binding activity compared to controls; pre-treatment with cyclosporine inhibited this effect. These data suggested that functional involvement distribution of calcium-dependent signaling is protective in ALD, independent of cellular-specific, Mf vs Hpt, fashion. In conclusion, we report novel finding that

calcium signaling is, in part, responsible for this website development of the inflammatory

component of ALD in mice. These results suggest potential therapeutic Thiamet G targets in ALD. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Tracie C. Lo, Keisaku Sato, Angela Dolganiuc Recent studies indicate that the inflammasome activation plays important roles in pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) is a key component of the macromolecular complex so called the inflammasome that trigger caspase 1-dependent maturation of the precursors of IL-1 β and IL-18 cytokines. It is also known that the adaptor proteins including apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) are necessary for NLRP3-dependent inflammasome function. Steatohepatitis frequently includes Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation. In the case of alcoholic steatohepatitis, MDB formation occurs in 80% of biopsies (French, 1981). While previous studies have focused on in vitro cell lines and mouse models, we are the first group to investigate inflammasome activation in AH liver biopsy specimen and correlate it with MDB formation. Expression of NLRP3, ASC, NAIP, MAVS, Caspase 1, IL-1 β, IL-18, NOD1 and other inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-y was measured in three to ten formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded AH specimens and control normal liver specimens by immunofluorescence staining and quantified by immunofluorescence intensity.

It has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C as an

It has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C as an accurate predictor of cirrhosis. In this issue of HEPATOLOGY, Wong and colleagues present a much anticipated study examining the accuracy of TE among patients with NAFLD.15 The study population consisted of 246 individuals originating from two

centers in France and Hong Kong who underwent liver biopsy and TE. Liver stiffness increased significantly with fibrosis and provided a high level of accuracy for detecting significant fibrosis (defined as at least perisinusoidal and portal/periportal fibrosis), advanced fibrosis (septal or bridging fibrosis) and cirrhosis, with area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve values of 0.84, 0.92, and 0.97, respectively. Importantly, in subjects in whom a full set of 10 successful readings could be obtained, the accuracy of TE was

not affected by BMI or steatosis check details grade. Prior reports of falsely high readings due to acute hepatitis16 were not observed, with accuracy not influenced by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels or the histological NAFLD activity score, which reflects the relatively indolent inflammatory nature of NASH. The accuracy of TE was also compared to five clinical and biochemical noninvasive measures; aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ALT ratio, AST-to-platelet ratio index, FIB-4, NAFLD fibrosis score, and BARD score (derived from three variables: BMI, AST/ALT ratio, diabetes). After excluding subjects with invalid learn more TE measurements, the AUROC values of TE were significantly higher than the clinical/biochemical indices for detecting advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. However, when the diagnostic characteristics were compared using an “intention to diagnose” approach with the inclusion of subjects who had unsuccessful TE acquisition, the sensitivity diglyceride and specificity values were not dissimilar from the clinical/biochemical models, although 95% confidence intervals were not provided for statistical comparison. Therefore, when TE measurement acquisition was successful, it was

more accurate at predicting advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis than the alternative noninvasive models. Further comparative studies with models that use more direct markers of fibrogenesis such as hyaluronic acid are required before definitive conclusions can be reached regarding the relative accuracy of serum markers and TE in NAFLD. Based on the performance characteristics of TE, the authors proposed two possible algorithms for determining advanced liver fibrosis. Using a cutoff point of 8.7 kPa, those with a reading below this had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 94.6% and therefore did not require biopsy. The prevalence (or pretest probability) of advanced fibrosis in community practice is likely to be lower than in this study, and thus the NPV is likely to be even better in this setting. The positive predictive value (PPV), however, was not high at 59.5%, and these patients required biopsy for accurate staging.

NF-κB is the central transcriptional regulator of inflammatory an

NF-κB is the central transcriptional regulator of inflammatory and immune responses.39 Constitutive NF-κB activation has been implicated in the malignant progression of numerous human inflammatory

diseases, metabolic diseases, cancers, and diabetes.40 Inhibiting the aberrant activation of NF-κB signaling can slow down or stop these disease processes.41, 42 In this study, our analysis results of inflammatory gene expression revealed that TGR5 has anti-inflammatory properties in the mouse liver. Our data show that TGR5 activation prevents the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear translocation of p65, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Activation of NF-κB in Kupffer cells promotes liver cancer development through IL-6 and liver-inflammatory responses.43 Blockage of NF-κB by deletion of Trametinib chemical structure IKKβ in Kupffer cells, in addition to hepatocytes, strongly inhibited diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC development.43 Thus, the suppression of NF-κB might be a therapeutical strategy for treating liver cancer, because the loss of NF-κB in Kupffer cells might suppress cancer. TGR5 is highly expressed in Kupffer cells of the liver.13, 14 In this study, we demonstrated that TGR5 activation is able to strongly suppress NF-κB-induced FDA approved Drug Library inflammation in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that TGR5 may be a

desirable therapeutic target for liver cancer treatment. It has been reported that TGR5 could be a potential target for the treatment of diabesity and associated metabolic disorders.10, 12, 44, 45 For example, Watanabe et al. reported that TGR5 activation by bile acids induces energy expenditure in muscle and brown adipose tissue.10 Thomas et al. found that TGR5 activation improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in fat-fed mice.12 These diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, are also closely associated with chronic inflammation, characterized by abnormal cytokine production, increased acute-phase reactants, and activation of a network of inflammatory signaling pathways.4,

46, 47 Inhibition of NF-κB-related inflammation is able to improve glucose metabolism in vivo.48, 49 Here, our data show that TGR5 is a negative modulator of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Therefore, there is a potential link between anti-inflammation and Avelestat (AZD9668) treatment of obesity and diabetes through TGR5. TGR5 may be an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic disorders through not only regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis, but also suppression of NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, our results reveal that TGR5 is a negative regulator of NF-κB-mediated hepatic inflammation, and indicate that TGR5 ligands have utility in anti-inflammation. These findings suggest that TGR5 is a potential target for anti-inflammatory drug design, and its agonist ligands offer possible therapies to prevent and treat inflammatory liver diseases. The authors thank Dr.

Moehlman pers comm ), suggests that offspring protection could p

Moehlman pers. comm.), suggests that offspring protection could play a role in determining territorial behaviour throughout the year. Longer time-series data are needed to investigate this further and test for year-round

territoriality. Our estimates of territory size are conservative and temporally sensitive, owing to the restricted timeframe of data collection when space use by parents was most constrained by having pups at a den. Average territory size (2.9 km2) at the study site was, however, comparable with findings elsewhere in the species’ LY2109761 clinical trial range (Loveridge & Nel, 2004). We would expect undefended home ranges to be considerably larger than defended territories, especially for jackals further from the colony, owing to the commuter system. We observed unprecedented levels of within-population

variation, with territory size varying by a factor of 55, increasing further from the colony. As territory holders did not appear limited by food, water or shelter within their territory, why should territory size vary so dramatically in relation to the colony? One hypothetical explanation is that jackals operate as ‘expansionists’ (Kruuk & Macdonald, 1985), with territory holders occupying available space and extending existing territorial boundaries until neighbouring dominant animals are encountered; a process affected IDO inhibitor by population density. Linear density is reported to be high (7.0–32.0 jackals km−2) in and around the Cape Cross fur seal colony and is associated with heightened levels of intra-specific competition and greater intrusion pressure. This may increase defence costs at territory boundaries and lead to smaller territory size (Fretwell & Lucas, 1970). Linear density declines to 0.1–0.53 jackals km−2 along the coast (Loveridge & Nel, 2004), with similar

trends expected inland. As breeding pairs become more dispersed, intra-specific competition for space will be reduced and territory holders may extend territorial boundaries to incorporate vacant areas and defend an area larger than would be required to sustain the group. This process of territory expansion has been documented in red foxes following removal of neighbouring groups and was not associated with changes in food selleck chemicals llc availability, group size or relinquishment of existing space (Baker et al., 2000). Defending a larger territory is likely associated with some costs, such as increased time and energy expended in producing and depositing scent-marks and patrolling territory boundaries. To offset such costs, some benefit must be gained. Expansionism is generally explained by the advantages accruing to membership of larger groups (e.g. alloparental care, cooperative defence, group hunting) outweighing costs of defending the large territory required to sustain them.