6 In the United States, Nutlin-3 molecular weight only four cases were reported between 1992 (when vaccine was licensed) and 2008, with two additional cases in 2010.1 To our knowledge, there has been only one possible case reported in a Canadian traveler, who visited Manchuria
in 1982.7 The incidence appears to be higher in those travelers who reside in rural zones for longer periods, estimated at 5 to 50 cases per 100,000.5 In endemic areas, the majority of infections are asymptomatic or mild, with less than 1% presenting with serious neurological symptoms.8 Therefore, the incidence in travelers is likely to be higher than suggested by the reported cases. Although the risk of exposure to JEV infection increases with the duration of stay in endemic areas, one-third of reported cases traveled for less than 1 month, and several traveled for 2 weeks or less to beach resorts in Thailand selleck kinase inhibitor and Bali.6,9,10 Despite these very low risks, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization
Practices and the Public Health Agency of Canada similarly recommend vaccination for travelers staying 30 days or more in an endemic region or for travelers with high risk activities who spend shorter periods of time.11,12 Our patient met the latter criterion. Recent expert opinion underlines the importance of weighting the benefits of JE vaccination on time, place, and host as well as behavioral factors.13 Our report underlines the potential for serious sequelae of JE, and the importance of vaccination, in adventurous young travelers with high-risk activities. Several vaccines are available globally. However, only one inactivated vaccine is available in North America. It requires two doses 4 weeks apart. Single standard dose is poorly immunogenic and short-term seroconversion at 1 month is only 40%.14 There is no good data on doses closer together. This means that Loperamide the traveler must come to clinic at least 5 to 6 weeks before entry into a risk area. Higher risk young
“spontaneous” adult travelers are less likely to comply because of their commonly unpredictable itineraries and activities. In most Western countries the cost of a full course (two doses) of vaccine is between $400 and $600 USD. This financial aversion increases the low likelihood of young adult adventurers to afford vaccination and seek pretravel information on protective measures at the same time. Development of a single-dose, affordable, and immunogenic vaccine would represent an important asset for this expanding category of travelers. We thank The Laboratoire de Santé Publique du Québec (LSPQ), The National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) of Canada, The Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Centre of Expertise (COFE) for Rabies, and The Atlanta National B Virus Resource Center for performing the various serologic analyses. The expert technical assistance provided by K. Makowski and M. Andonova for the flavivirus serology performed during this case investigation is particularly acknowledged.