In vivo assays showed that CmCCD4a and MdCCD4 cleaved beta-carotene well to yield beta-ionone,
while OfCCD4, RdCCD4, and AtCCD4 were almost inactive towards this substrate. No cleavage PF-00299804 price products were found for any of the five CCD4 genes when they were co-expressed in E. coli strains that accumulated cis-zeta-carotene and lycopene. In vitro assays, however, demonstrated the breakdown of 8′-apo-beta-caroten-8′-al by AtCCD4 and RdCCD4 to beta-ionone, while this apocarotenal was almost not degraded by OfCCD4, CmCCD4a, and MdCCD4. Sequence analysis of genomic clones of CCD4 genes revealed that RdCCD4, like AtCCD4, contains no intron, while MdCCD, OfCCD4, and CmCCD4a contain introns. These results indicate that plants produce at least two different forms of CCD4 proteins. Although CCD4 enzymes cleave their substrates at the same position (9,10 and 9′,10′), they might
have different biochemical functions click here as they accept different (apo)-carotenoid substrates, show various expression patterns, and are genomically differently organized.”
“Purpose: To describe the methodology of Aditya Jyot-Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Mumbai Slums Study (AJ-DRUMSS), which was designed (i) to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a general population, (ii) to study the risk factors associated with DR in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and (iii) to create awareness for early detection and develop timely interventional management for DR. Methods: AJ-DRUMSS is an ongoing population-based cross sectional study conducted in seven wards of slums in Mumbai, India, wherein eligible https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html subjects from the general population were screened for DR and profiled for their demographic, social and biochemical parameters to study the associations of these factors. Results:
To date, nearly 54,000 households have been enumerated for both awareness and DR prevalence in five study areas (out of seven) during 17 awareness campaigns and 78 DR screening camps. Of these, 4295 households were included in AJ-DRUMSS. Nearly 15,000 camp subjects (including subjects from awareness-focused areas who also turned up for the screening camps) were screened from the total enumerated households, of which 16.1% were diagnosed with type 2 DM. A total of 14.5% of these had evidence of DR and 3.5% had sight-threatening DR. Conclusions: A detailed study design of AJ-DRUMSS is described. In the screening camps nearly 3.5% of the diabetic population had sight-threatening DR, which needed an active interventional strategy. This study will help in formulating efficient eye care policies, making optimum use of available resources, reorienting healthcare providers and the ignorant within the population regarding the need for periodic ophthalmic surveillance and timely intervention.