In the present study, we investigated the effect of two represent

In the present study, we investigated the effect of two representative dietary compounds, quercetin and myricetin, on plasma and tissue levels of several PG products in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that these two dietary bioflavonoids could strongly stimulate the formation of PG products in vivo in a time-dependent manner, and the stimulatory effect of these two bioflavonoids was dose-dependent with a unique biphasic pattern. At lower doses ( < 0.3 mg/kg b.w.), they strongly stimulated the formation of PGE(2), but at higher doses ( > 0.3 mg/kg

b.w.), there was a dose-dependent reduction HDAC inhibitor of the stimulatory effect. These results provide support for the hypothesis that some of the bioflavonoids are naturally occurring physiological co-substrates for the cyclooxygenases in vivo. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Kenaf is an important fiber

crop worldwide. it was recently introduced to South Africa as a commercial fiber crop. The aim of this study was to deter-mine how different environments and seasons influence stalk yield. Nine kenaf cultivars from various countries HSP990 nmr were analysed in two environments, over two consecutive seasons, where one location was irrigated and the other not. Data were recorded for total fresh yield, defoliated stalk yield and dry stalk yield. Yield stability was analysed with four different statistical models. The dry stalk yield varied from 15.33 to 17.78 ton/ha. El Salvador and Tainung 2 had high dry stalk yields in the favourable environments, but Tainung 2 did not have stable yield across all trials. Everglades 41 and El Salvador were

the most stable of the varieties CDK inhibitors in clinical trials across both environments and seasons. El Salvador was the cultivar that had the highest and most stable dry stalk yield in the two seasons and two locations in South Africa, and should perform well in commercial production. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We assembled a total of 297,239 Gossypium hirsutum (Gh, a tetraploid cotton, AADD) expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences that were available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, with reference to the recently published G. raimondii (Gr, a diploid cotton, DD) genome, and obtained 49,125 UniGenes. The average lengths of the UniGenes were increased from 804 and 791 bp in two previous EST assemblies to 1,019 bp in the current analysis. The number of putative cotton UniGenes with lengths of 3kb or more increased from 25 or 34 to 1,223. As a result, thousands of originally independent G. hirsutum ESTs were aligned to produce large contigs encoding transcripts with very long open reading frames, indicating that the G. raimondii genome sequence provided remarkable advantages to assemble the tetraploid cotton transcriptome.

“Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a candidate marker for l

“Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a candidate marker for lung cancer cells with stem cell-like properties. Immunohistochemical staining of a large panel of primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples for ALDH1A1, ALDH3A1, and CD133 revealed a significant correlation

between ALDH1A1 (but not ALDH3A1 or CD133) expression and poor prognosis in patients including those with stage I and N0 disease. Flow cytometric analysis of a panel of lung cancer cell lines and patient tumors revealed that most NSCLCs contain a subpopulation of cells with elevated ALDH activity, and that this activity is associated with ALDH1A1 expression. Isolated ALDH(+) lung cancer cells were observed to be highly tumorigenic and clonogenic as well as capable of self-renewal HIF-1 pathway compared with their ALDH(-) counterparts. buy Adavosertib Expression analysis of sorted cells revealed elevated Notch pathway transcript expression in ALDH(+) cells. Suppression of the Notch pathway by treatment with either a gamma-secretase inhibitor or stable expression of shRNA against NOTCH3 resulted in a significant decrease in ALDH(+) lung cancer cells, commensurate with a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and clonogenicity. Taken together, these findings indicate that ALDH selects for a

subpopulation of self-renewing NSCLC stem-like cells with increased tumorigenic potential, that NSCLCs harboring tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression have inferior prognosis, and that ALDH1A1 and CD133 identify different tumor subpopulations. Therapeutic targeting of the Notch pathway reduces this ALDH(+) component, implicating Notch signaling in lung cancer stem cell maintenance. Cancer Res; 70(23); 9937-48. (C)2010 AACR.”
“The aim of the present study was the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN, and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC) as potential carriers for octyl-methoxycinnamate CA4P concentration (OMC). The release pattern of OMC from SLN and NLC was evaluated in vitro, determining

its percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of OMC-loaded lipid nanoparticles. From the obtained results, ultrasonication method yielded both SLN and NLC in the nanometer range with a high active loading and a particle shape close to spherical. Differential scanning calorimetry data pointed out the key role of the inner oil phase of NLC in stabilizing the particle architecture and in increasing the solubility of OMC as compared with SLN. In vitro results showed that OMC, when incorporated in viscosized NLC dispersions (OMCNLC), exhibited a lower flux with respect to viscosized SLN dispersions (OMCSLN) and two reference formulations: a microemulsion (OMC-ME) and a hydroalcoholic gel (OMC-GEL).

We determined the aspect ratio of stereoscopically viewed ellipse

We determined the aspect ratio of stereoscopically viewed ellipses that appeared circular. We show that observers’ judgements of aspect ratio were affected by surface slant, but that the largest image vertical:horizontal aspect ratio that was considered to be a surface with a circular profile was always found for

surfaces close to fronto-parallel. This is not consistent with a Bayesian model in which the horizontal-vertical illusion arises from a non-uniform prior probability distribution for slant. Rather, we suggest that assumptions about the slant of surfaces affect apparent aspect ratio in a manner that is more heuristic, and partially dissociated from apparent slant. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In this study we assessed the efficacy and the tolerance of postoperative radiochemotherapy Sapitinib in gastric cancer.\n\nMaterial and methods: A group of 66 patients with gastric cancer after radical surgery was treated postoperatively with radiochemotherapy during 2003-2006. In this group

were 47 men and 19 women Median age was 57 years Total gastrectomy was performed in 49 patients. Histologically adenocarcinomas dominated and stages pT2-T3 and pN1-N2 Radiochemotherapy was used in all cases After the first cycle of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (425 mg/m(2)) and leucovorin (20 mg/m2) patients were irradiated (45 Gy in 25 fractions). During radiotherapy they received

2 cycles of a reduced dose of 5-Fu (400 mg/m(2)) and leucovorin (20 mg/m(2)). After radiotherapy chemotherapy was continued (2 cycles)\n\nResults: Fifty-three patients completed treatment as planned. Twenty-nine patients died. Thirty-seven are alive The 1-, 2-and 5-year overall survival rates were 83, 62 and 50% respectively. Navitoclax nmr Disease-free survival rates were 75, 59 and 48% respectively. Haematological toxicity was observed in 54% of patients Gastrointestinal toxic effects were observed in 20 patients. Acute toxicity of liver, heart and lungs was not observed In this group were identified independent prognostic factors which influence the overall survival the stage of cancer and the number of involved lymph nodes\n\nConclusions: Postoperative radiochemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer is effective and well tolerated. Independent prognostic factors which influence the overall survival are the stage of cancer, the number of involved lymph nodes and recurrence.”
“Background: Ectopy-induced cardiomyopathy is an increasingly recognized cause of reversible left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our goal was to create an animal model for ectopy-induced cardiomyopathy.\n\nMethods: Eleven mongrel dogs underwent the implantation of a dual-chamber pacemaker. Four dogs served as the control group and seven as the paced group.

The four methyl-substituted silane molecules,

belonging t

The four methyl-substituted silane molecules,

belonging to open-chain alkylsilanes, dissociatively adsorb on W and Ta filaments to produce methyl radical and H-2 molecule. Under the typical deposition pressures, with increasing number of methyl substitution, the dominant chemistry occurring in the gas phase switches from silylene/silene reactions to free-radical short chain reactions. This change in dominant reaction intermediates from silylene/silene to methyl radicals explains the observation from thin film deposition that silicon carbide films become more C-rich with a decreasing number of Si-H bonds in the four precursor Ruboxistaurin mouse molecules. In the case of cyclic monosilacyclobutanes, we have shown that ring-opening reactions play a vital role in characterizing the reaction chemistry. On the

other hand, exocyclic Si-H(CH3) bond cleavages are more important in the less-puckered disilacyclobutane molecules. Metal filaments are NSC23766 solubility dmso essential in HWCVD since they serve as catalysts to decompose precursor gases to reactive species, which initiate gas-phase reaction chemistry and thin film growth. We discuss the structural changes in metal filaments when exposed to various precursor gases. Depending on the nature of the radical intermediates formed from the hot-wire decomposition and subsequent gas-phase reactions, metal silicides and carbides can be formed. Overall, study of the gas-phase reaction chemistry in HWCVD provides important knowledge of the chemical species produced prior to their deposition SCH727965 Cell Cycle inhibitor on a substrate surface. This helps in identifying the major contributor to alloy formation on the filament itself and the film growth, and consequently, in determining the properties of the deposited films. An integrated knowledge of the gas-phase reaction chemistry, filament alloy formation, and thin film deposition is required for an efficient deposition of high-quality thin films and nanomaterials.”
“The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health

Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates.

Both day 15 and day 28 status was classified as good ( smaller th

Both day 15 and day 28 status was classified as good ( smaller than = 20% leukemic blasts) in 77% of patients. The correlation between day 15 and 28 blast percentages was significant, Selleckchem Galardin but not strong (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.49, P smaller than 0.001). Survival probability decreased in a stepwise fashion along with rising blast counts at day 28. Patients with bone marrow blast counts at this time-point of smaller than = 5%, 6-10%, 11-20% and bigger than 20% had 4-year probabilities of survival of 52%+/- 3% versus 36%+/- 10% versus 21%+/- 9% versus 14%+/- 4%, respectively, P smaller than 0.0001; this trend was not seen for day 15 results. Multivariate analysis showed

that early treatment response at day 28 had the strongest prognostic significance, superseding even time to relapse (

smaller than or bigger than = 12 selleck chemicals months). In conclusion, an early response to treatment, measured on day 28, is a strong and independent prognostic factor potentially useful for treatment stratification in pediatric relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. This study was registered with ISRCTN code: 94206677.”
“Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that nonmalignant tumor infiltrating inflammatory cells contribute to clinical outcome in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Particularly, tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) content correlates with longer survival rates c-Met inhibitor after immunochemotherapy. Here we investigated the prognostic importance of tumor-associated mast cells (MCs) and their relation to TAMs in patients with FL treated with a combination of rituximab (R) and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy. Of the 98 patients, 70 received R-CHOP at diagnosis and 28 at relapse. According to Kaplan-Meier estimates, the patients with high MC content had

a worse 4-year progression-free survival (PIFS) than the ones with low MC content after R-CHOP therapy (34% vs 74%, P = .002). The adverse prognostic value of MCs was seen both for the patients treated at diagnosis and at relapse, whereas no such impact on PFS was observed for the control patients treated with chemotherapy only (P = .4). When the TAM-related PIFS was analyzed separately in patients with high and low MC contents, the positive prognostic effect of TAM was seen only in patients with few MCs. Taken together, the data demonstrate that a high MC score is associated with unfavorable prognosis and it eliminates the positive prognostic value of TAMs in patients with FL treated with immunochemotherapy.”
“The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer.

The propagation rate of signal along the length of the arterial t

The propagation rate of signal along the length of the arterial tree in the cine nonenhanced MR angiograms was quantified. ResultsThe cine NEMRA sequence simultaneously provided a static MR angiogram showing vascular anatomy as well as a cine display of arterial pulse wave propagation along the entire length of the peripheral arteries. Multi-shot cine NEMRA improved temporal resolution and reduced image artifacts. HYPR reconstruction improved image quality when temporal reconstruction footprints shorter than 100 ms were used (P smaller than 0.001). Pulse wave propagation within the arterial tree as displayed by cine NEMRA was

slower in patients with PAD than in volunteers. ConclusionSimultaneous static and cine NEMRA of the peripheral arteries is feasible. Multi-shot acquisition and HYPR reconstruction can be used to improve arterial conspicuity and temporal resolution. Magn Reson Med 72:1079-1086, Staurosporine in vitro 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Protracted mitotic arrest leads to cell death; however, the molecular signals that link these distinct processes remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the pro-apoptotic BH3-only family member Bim undergoes phosphorylation in K562 cells following treatment with the microtubule targeting agents Taxol and Nocodazole. The phosphorylation of two Bim isoforms,

BimEL and BimL, at the mitochondria correlates with mitotic arrest and precedes Temsirolimus mw cell death induced by Taxol. It was also found that Bim undergoes transient phosphorylation during normal mitosis in K562 cells. In addition, siRNA silencing of Bim reduces sensitivity to Taxol-induced cell death. The transition of K562 cells from mitosis to G(1) results in the loss of BimEL and BimL phosphorylation and correlates with the degradation of cyclin B1. The Cdk1 inhibitors, RO-3306 and Purvalanol A, block Bim phosphorylation in mitotically arrested cells. Importantly,

P5091 mw it was found that cyclin B1 co-immunoprecipitates with endogenous Bim in mitotic extracts. Furthermore, active recombinant Cdk1/cyclin B1 phosphorylates BimEL and BimL in vitro, and Serine 44 on BimL has been identified as a Cdk1 phosphorylation site. Collectively, these results suggest that Cdk1/cyclin B1-dependent hyperphosphorylation of Bim during prolonged mitotic arrest is an important cell death signal.”
“BACKGROUND:\n\nHuman infections with simian foamy viruses (SFVs) have been reported after occupational and nonoccupational exposure to infected animals and their tissues, blood, and body fluids, although there is no evidence for human-to-human transmission. We previously demonstrated SFV transmission in monkeys by blood transfusion with whole blood from one donor animal that had a low neutralizing antibody (NAb) endpoint titer, whereas blood transfusion from a second donor monkey that had a high NAb titer failed to transmit virus.

Here, sixteen microsatellite loci were developed and twelve

Here, sixteen microsatellite loci were developed and twelve Navitoclax purchase polymorphic loci were used to investigate the genetic variation on 30 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15, with the average of 6,000. The observed and expected heterozygosity values varied from 0.2333 to 0.9000 and 0.2096 to 0.9203, respectively. Only one locus (YBJX28) significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. No significant linkage

disequilibrium was detected. These polymorphic markers should be useful tool for assessing population genetics of Varanus salvator.”
“Krppel-like factor 17 (KLF17), a member of the KLF transcription factor family, is elevated in endometrial cancer tissues, and KLF17 induces the epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) of endometrial cancer cells via direct activation of key EMT inducer TWIST1.Krppel-like factor 17 (KLF17), a member of the KLF transcription factor family, has been shown to inhibit

the epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor growth. However, the expression, the cellular function and the mechanism of KLF17 in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC; a dominant type of endometrial cancer) remain elusive. Here, we report that among the KLF family members, KLF17 was consistently upregulated in EEC cell lines compared with immortalized endometrial epithelial cells. Overexpression of KLF17 in EEC cell lines induced EMT and promoted cell invasion CH5183284 cell line and drug resistance, resulting in increased expression of TWIST1. In contrast, KLF17 suppression reversed EMT, diminished cell invasion, restored drug sensitivity and suppressed TWIST1 expression. Luciferase assays, site-directed mutagenesis and transcription factor DNA-binding analysis demonstrated that KLF17 transactivates selleck compound TWIST1

expression by directly binding to the TWIST1 promoter. Knockdown of TWIST1 prevented KLF17-induced EMT. Consistent with these results, both KLF17 and TWIST1 levels were found to be elevated in EECs compared with normal tissues. KLF17 expression positively correlated with tumor grade but inversely correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. Thus, KLF17 may have an oncogenic role during EEC progression via initiating EMT through the regulation of TWIST1.”
“Background With the continuous improvement of maneuvering performance of modern high-performance aircraft, the protection problem of flight personnel under high G acceleration, the development as well as research on monitoring system and the equipment for human physiological signals processing which include electroencephalogram (EEG) have become more and more important.

These results

suggest that bacterial sRNAs may use target

These results

suggest that bacterial sRNAs may use target-site multiplicity to enhance the efficiency and stringency of regulation. Moreover, use of multiple binding sites may be particularly important for coordinating regulation of multiple genes encoded in operons.”
“Background: The iJO1366 reconstruction of the metabolic network of Escherichia coli is one of the most complete and accurate metabolic reconstructions available for any organism. Still, because our knowledge of even well-studied model organisms such as this one is incomplete, this network reconstruction contains gaps and possible errors. There are a total of 208 blocked metabolites in iJO1366, representing gaps in the network.\n\nResults: A new model improvement workflow HDAC cancer was developed to compare model based phenotypic predictions to experimental Selleck AZD1152-HQPA data to fill gaps and correct errors. A Keio Collection based dataset of E. coli gene essentiality was obtained from literature data and compared to model predictions. The SMILEY algorithm was then used to predict the most likely missing reactions in the reconstructed network, adding reactions from a KEGG based universal set of metabolic reactions. The feasibility of these putative reactions was determined by comparing updated versions of the model to the experimental

dataset, and genes were predicted for the most feasible reactions.\n\nConclusions: AP24534 price Numerous improvements to the iJO1366 metabolic reconstruction were suggested by these analyses. Experiments were performed to verify several computational predictions, including a new mechanism for growth on myo-inositol. The other predictions made in this

study should be experimentally verifiable by similar means. Validating all of the predictions made here represents a substantial but important undertaking.”
“Furfuryl and tetrahydrofurfuryl vinyl ethers reacted with various alcohols under mild conditions (20-25A degrees C, 1-3 h, 1 wt % of CF3COOH) with high chemo- and regioselectivity to give the corresponding Markovnikov adducts at the vinyl group in up to 93% yield.”
“Background: This report outlines the action research used to develop a workshop for interprofessional student groups to enhance listening skills.\n\nAim: The project aimed to enable students to reflect interprofessionally on the human factors central to effective communication using the power of storytelling by disabled people and their carers.\n\nMethods: Qualitative data from students and participating service users were collected using focus groups and one-to-one interviews over three pilot cycles.\n\nResults: The results from each pilot informed the cyclical development of the project so that each stage of data collection informed the next stage. During the pilots, 20 interviews with service users were completed and a total of 109 students participated.

No systemic toxicity or intravascular thrombosis remote from the<

No systemic toxicity or intravascular thrombosis remote from the

target region was detected in any of the animals. Conclusions. Vascular targeting can increase intravascular thrombosis after radiosurgery, and the vessel occlusion is durable. Further work is needed to refine this approach to AVM treatment, which shows promise as a way to overcome the limitations of radiosurgery.”
“The genetic basis of phenotypic traits is of great interest to evolutionary biologists, but their contribution to adaptation in nature is often unknown. To determine the FDA approved Drug Library cell line genetic architecture of flowering time in ecologically relevant conditions, we used a recombinant inbred line population created from two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy. Using these RILs, we identified flowering time QTL in growth chambers that mimicked the natural temperature and photoperiod variation across the growing season in each native environment. We also compared the genomic locations of flowering time QTL to those of fitness (total fruit number) QTL from a previous three-year field study. Ten AZD8931 total flowering time QTL were found, and in all cases,

the Italy genotype caused early flowering regardless of the conditions. Two QTL were consistent across chamber environments, and these had the largest effects on flowering time. Five of the fitness QTL colocalized with flowering time QTL found in the Italy conditions, and in each case, the local genotype was favoured. In contrast, just two flowering time QTL found in the Sweden conditions colocalized with fitness QTL and in only one case was the local genotype favoured. This implies that flowering time may be more important for adaptation in Italy than Sweden. Two candidate genes (FLC and VIN3) underlying the major flowering time QTL found in the current selleck chemicals llc study are implicated in local adaptation.”
“Physical activity-induced prevention of

hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P < 0.01), and this was associated with only a partial loss in activity-induced improvements in body composition, serum lipids, and glycemic control.

5 mu g/mL/>0 5 mu g/mL) CA ranged from 93 6% (caspofungin) to

5 mu g/mL/>0.5 mu g/mL). CA ranged from 93.6% (caspofungin) to 99.6% (micafungin)

with less than 1% very major or major errors. The YeastOne colorimetric method remains comparable to the CLSI BMD reference method for testing the susceptibility of Candida spp. to the echinocandins when using the new (lower) CBPs and ECVs. Further study using define fks mutant strains of Candida is warranted. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Primary small cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-SCC) is an CBL0137 purchase extremely uncommon disease. The current knowledge of these rare tumors is mainly based on case reports or small series. Methods: We reported two cases and performed a systematic literature search from 1970 to 2010 for articles on Sirtuin inhibitor UUT-SCC. Overall, 40 patients with UUT-SCC were reviewed, a database was generated to analyze clinical characteristics, pathological features and therapy outcomes and to attempt in identifying prognostic factors.\n\nResults: For the 39 cases with available data, median age was 66.5 years and male-female ratio was 2:1. An Asian ethnic background

was more common (59%). Surgery was the standard treatment given to all patients. In 67% of cases, SCC coexisted with another malignant component, including urothelial carcinoma in 62% of patients. Overall median survival was 15

months and the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 58.4%, 38.1% and 23.8%, respectively. Of all cases, 53.8% developed detectable metastasis in a median delay of 13 months. Pathological stage was the only significant prognostic factor found (p = 0.01). Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy seem to have a higher median survival comparatively to those who did not receive chemotherapy but this was not statistically significant (24 vs. 12 months, p = 0.56).\n\nConclusions: UUT-SCC is an extremely rare tumor characterized Luminespib in vivo by an aggressive clinical course. Local or distant metastases are frequent and survival is poor. Pathological stage appeared to be a prognostic factor for overall survival. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To analyze flows of travel between place of residence and health care services by children and adolescents with cancer.\n\nMETHODS: The flows of travel between place of residence and the health care service for children and adolescents receiving care in Brazil’s Unified Health System (SUS) were monitored between 2000 and 2007. The unit of analysis was the health care district. The geographical information system data and network methodology, by type of treatment received (chemotherapy and radiotherapy) and hospital admissions were used.