Additional research is necessary to determine whether long-term supplementation may help athletes better tolerate training. Vitamin K Males 120 mcg/d Females 90 mcg/d Important in blood clotting. There is also some evidence that it may affect bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Vitamin K supplementation (10 mg/d) in elite female athletes has been Torin 1 cell line reported to increase calcium-binding capacity of osteocalcin and promoted a 15-20% increase in bone formation markers and a 20-25% decrease in bone resorption markers suggesting an improved balance between bone formation and resorption . Thiamin (B1) Males 1.2 mg/d Females 1.1 mg/d Coenzyme (thiamin pyrophosphate)
in the removal of CO2 from decarboxylic reactions from pyruvate to acetyl CoA and in TCA cycle. Supplementation is theorized to improve anaerobic threshold and CO2 transport. Deficiencies may decrease efficiency of energy systems. Dietary availability of thiamin does not appear to affect exercise capacity when athletes have a normal intake . Riboflavin (B2) Males 1.3 mg/d Females 1.7 mg/d Constituent of flavin nucleotide coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. Theorized to enhance energy availability during oxidative metabolism. Dietary availability of riboflavin does not appear to affect exercise capacity when athletes have a normal intake .
Niacin (B3) Males 16 mg/d Females 14 mg/d Constituent of coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. Theorized to blunt increases in fatty acids during exercise, reduce cholesterol, enhance thermoregulation, and improve energy availability during oxidative metabolism. Studies indicate that 17-AAG molecular weight niacin supplementation (100-500 mg/d) can help decrease blood lipid levels and increase homocysteine levels in hypercholesteremic patients [488, 489]. ACP-196 price However, niacin supplementation (280 mg) during exercise has been reported to decrease exercise capacity
by blunting the mobilization of fatty acids . 5-FU chemical structure Pyridoxine (B6) 1.3 mg/d (age <51) Has been marketed as a supplement that will improve muscle mass, strength, and aerobic power in the lactic acid and oxygen systems. It also may have a calming effect that has been linked to an improved mental strength. In well-nourished athletes, pyridoxine failed to improve aerobic capacity, or lactic acid accumulation . However, when combined with vitamins B1 and B12, it may increase serotonin levels and improve fine motor skills that may be necessary in sports like pistol shooting and archery [491, 492]. Cyano-cobalamin (B12) 2.4 mcg/d A coenzyme involved in the production of DNA and serotonin. DNA is important in protein and red blood cell synthesis. Theoretically, it would increase muscle mass, the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, and decrease anxiety. In well-nourished athletes, no ergogenic effect has been reported. However, when combined with vitamins B1 and B6, cyanocobalamin has been shown to improve performance in pistol shooting .