Therefore knowledge of patient’s risk is essential to begin treatment as soon
as possible with the most appropriate regimen. Many factors can contribute to a patient’s risk for isolation of resistant pathogens. These click here include [102, 103]: Health care-associated infections High severity of illness (APACHE II score >15) Advanced age Comorbidity and degree of organ dysfunction Poor nutritional status and low albumin level Immunodepression Presence of malignancy In high risk patients the normal flora may be modified and intra-abdominal infections may be caused by several unexpected pathogens and by more resistant flora, which may include, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs) and Candida spp. In these infections antimicrobial regimens with broader spectrum of activity are recommended, because adequate empirical therapy appears to be important selleck chemicals llc in reducing mortality. Health care-associated infections are commonly caused by more resistant flora, and for these infections, complex multidrug regimens are always recommended. Although transmission of multidrug LY3009104 clinical trial resistant organisms is most frequently documented in acute care facilities, all healthcare settings are affected by the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant microbes. Among
intra-abdominal infections post-operative peritonitis is a life-threatening infection and carries a high risk of complications and mortality. In order to describe the clinical, microbiological and resistance profiles of community-acquired and nosocomial intra-abdominal infections a prospective, observational study (EBIIA)  was completed in French. The results or this study were published in 2009. From January
to July 2005, patients undergoing surgery/interventional drainage for IAIs with a positive microbiological culture were included by 25 French centres. The principal results of EBIIA were a higher diversity of microorganisms isolated in nosocomial infections and decreased susceptibility among these strains. In order to assess the microbiological differences, particularly with respect to the type of bacteria recovered and the level of antimicrobial Digestive enzyme susceptibility between community-acquired and nosocomial IAIs, the results of an interesting prospective observational study were published by Seguin et al.  in 2006. Community-acquired peritonitis accounted for 44 cases and nosocomial peritonitis for 49 cases (post-operative in 35 cases). In univariate analysis, the presence of MDR bacteria was associated significantly with preoperative and total hospital lengths of stay, previous use of antimicrobial therapy, and post-operative antimicrobial therapy duration and modifications. A 5-day cut-off in length of hospital stay had the best specificity (58%) and sensitivity (93%) for predicting whether MDR bacteria were present.