This model is extended in this paper through coupling of the one-dimensional axisymmetric mass transport equations in tissue and blood to quantify the effects of vasomotion on mass transport to tissue. The results show that over a wide parameter range, surrounding those values calculated from
experimental data, vasomotion does inhibit mass transport to tissue in a one-dimensional axisymmetric blood vessel by an amount that is predominantly dependent upon the amplitude of oscillation and that increases rapidly at larger oscillation amplitudes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Evidence suggests that Bleomycin 30-50% of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) Capmatinib price are classified as suffering from treatment resistant depression (TRD) as they have an inadequate response to standard antidepressants. A key feature of this patient population is the increased incidence of co-morbid symptoms like anxiety and pain. Recognizing that current standards of care are largely focused on monoaminergic
mechanisms of action (MOAs), innovative approaches to drug discovery for TRD are targeting glutamate hyperfunction.
Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo profile of GRN-529, a novel negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). In cell based pharmacology assays, GRN-529 is a high affinity (Ki 5.4 nM), potent (IC50 3.1 nM) and selective (>1000-fold selective vs mGluR1) mGluR5 NAM. Acute administration of GRN-529 (0.1-30 mg/kg p.o.) had dose-dependent efficacy across a therapeutically BCKDHA relevant battery of animal models, comprising depression (decreased immobility time in tail suspension and forced swim tests) and 2 of the co-morbid symptoms overrepresented in TRD, namely anxiety (attenuation of stress-induced
hyperthermia, and increased punished crossings in the four plate test) and pain (reversal of hyperalgesia due to sciatic nerve ligation or inflammation). The potential side effect liability of GRN-529 was also assessed using preclinical models: GRN-529 had no effect on rat sexual behavior or motor co-ordination (rotarod), however it impaired cognition in mice (social odor recognition). Efficacy and side effects of GRN-529 were compared to standard of care agents (antidepressant, anxiolytic or analgesics) and the tool mGluR5 NAM, MTEP. To assess the relationship between target occupancy and efficacy, ex vivo receptor occupancy was measured in parallel with efficacy testing. This revealed a strong correlation between target engagement, exposure and efficacy across behavioral endpoints, which supports the potential translational value of PET imaging to dose selection in patients.