This result demonstrates that RND-3 is indeed required for antibiotic resistance and that, at least for the compounds tested, demonstrates nalidixic acid specificity as this was the only MIC altered in the mutant strain. Table 1 Antimicrobial susceptibilities of B. cenocepacia J2315, D3, and D4 strains Compound MIC (μg/ml) J2315 wt D3 D4 Aztreonam 2000
2000 250 Ethidium bromide >2000 >2000 125 Chloramphenicol 4 4 <1 Gentamicin >2000 >2000 1000 Tobramicin 1000 1000 250 Nalidixic acid 16 2 4 Ciprofloxacin 8 8 2 Levofloxacin 4 4 0.5 Norfloxacin 32 32 8 Sparfloxacin 8 8 1 As already mentioned, the proteins BCAL1674, BCAL1675, and selleck BCAL1676 that comprise the rnd-3 operon share strong sequence similarity to RND efflux pump AmrAB-OprA from B. pseudomallei which is responsible for the efflux of aminoglycosides and macrolides in that Burkholderia species . We previously showed that the gene
encoding the pump protein (orf3) was expressed at detectable Selleckchem Napabucasin levels by RT-PCR. Assuming that RND-3 is functionally similar to AmrAB-OprA, the lack of aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in the B. cenocepacia D3 mutant may be due to an alternative efflux pump or resistance mechanism against aminoglycosides and macrolides. To address the notion of RND efflux pump redundancy, we are in the process of generating a complete library of RND MG-132 ic50 deletion mutants that can be screened for drug sensitivity. Furthermore the I-SceI deletion strategy makes it possible the construction of strains carrying multiple RND gene deletions, which we are also pursuing. The B. cenocepacia D4 deletion mutant demonstrated a 4 to 16-fold increase in drug susceptibility to several of the antimicrobials tested, indicating that RND-4 plays an important role in the intrinsic antibiotic resistance of B. cenocepacia [Table 1]. In particular, many strain D4 is more susceptible than the parental strain J2315 when exposed to aztreonam, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tobramicin, and to different fluoroquinolones, such as nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin,
levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Furthermore, the MIC of ethidium bromide was more than 16-fold lower in D4 than in J2315 [Table 1]. The MIC values for other drugs such as ampicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, piperacillin, erythromycin, and kanamycin were not altered in D4 as compared to J2315 (data not shown). Increased sensitivity to many antimicrobials of therapeutic importance might suggest that inhibition of RND-4 function could be of benefit to CF patients colonized with B. cenocepacia. Effect of broad-spectrum efflux pump inhibitor MC-207,110 on B. cenocepacia J2315 and the RND deletion mutants D1, D3 and D4 It has been reported that MC-207,110 efflux inhibitor has a potentiating effect in P. aeruginosa, where it lowers the MIC of different fluoroquinolones [34, 35]. We tested the effect of this efflux inhibitor on B.