There is evidence that ACEi are efficacious at reducing BP and subsequent CVD and all-cause mortality in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment. There is currently little evidence about the comparative effectiveness of other agents in preventing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in this patient population. Post-hoc analyses of ACEi trials have shown that the treatment effects of ACEi on cardiovascular outcomes are consistent in patients with and without CKD.
ACEi appear therefore a reasonable first choice for prevention of CVD in this population. The evidence about the cardiovascular protective effects of ARB in CKD patients is scarce. However, they have been shown to confer renal protection in patients with diabetic nephropathy
and are therefore a sensible alternative if ACEi are not tolerated in this population. Head to head studies Deforolimus clinical trial have reported similar cardiovascular outcomes with different classes of agents in people with CKD, although the power to detect meaningful see more differences is limited. ACEi, ARB, CCB and diuretics are therefore all reasonable choices for people with CKD. Renin angiotensin system blockade with ACEi or ARB is likely to have renal benefits in people with proteinuria and should therefore be preferred in this population (see separate guideline). There is little evidence about the efficacy in preventing CVD of different combinations of BP-lowering drugs in people with CKD. If BP targets are not met, the choice of a second agent should be based on individual patient factors, tolerability, and side-effects. a. We recommend that an ACEi or angiotensin receptor antagonist be prescribed for patients with CKD (or kidney transplant) and heart failure (1B). d. We suggest that patients receiving dialysis who have heart failure should be prescribed an ACEi or angiotensin receptor antagonist Adenosine (2D). For patients with CKD (or kidney transplant) symptomatic on the recommended agents, the following therapies could be considered as a third
agent (ungraded): Aldosterone antagonists have mortality benefit in people without CKD, but this may be attenuated in CKD and offset by greater toxicity Angiotensin receptor antagonist added to the ACEi reduces hospitalization but not mortality in people without CKD, but there are no data in CKD and potential increased toxicity Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), vasodilators and digoxin have all been studied in heart failure patients, but there is insufficient data to recommend for or against their use in heart failure patients with CKD receiving ACEi and beta-blocker therapy Diuretic therapy should be prescribed as required to control volume state with careful monitoring of kidney function and electrolytes (ungraded).