Using this method, the nociceptive responses of A(delta)-fibers i

Using this method, the nociceptive responses of A(delta)-fibers in S1 were verified, and the somatotopic map of the first nociceptive component

in S1 was identified. We found that whether light touch or laser-induced nociception was applied to the tail of the rat, the responsive topography in S1 was consistent. Discrimination of these two modalities was achieved vertically in the same column; the deeper layer represented the nociceptive response while the superficial layer encoded the response to light touch. This is quite different from that of a primate brain. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. check details Human spatial navigation can be conceptualized as egocentric or exocentric, depending on the navigator’s perspective. Navigational impairment is known to occur in individuals with cognitive impairment, but less is known about navigational abilities in nondemented older adults. Our objective was to develop tests of navigation and study their cognitive correlates in nondemented older adults.

Methods. We developed a Local Route Recall Test (LRRT) to examine egocentric navigation and a Floor Maze Test (FMT) to assess exocentric navigation

in 127 older adults without dementia or amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Factor analysis was used to reduce neuropsychological test scores to three cognitive factors representing Executive Function/Attention, Verbal selleck inhibitor Ability, and Memory. We examined relationships between navigational tests and cognitive function (using both cognitive factors ZD1839 and the highest loading individual test on each factor) in a series of regression analyses adjusted for demographic variables (age, sex, and education), medical illnesses. and gait velocity.

Results. The tests were well tolerated, easy to administer. and reliable in this nondemented and non-MCI sample. Egocentric skills on the LRRT

were associated with Executive Function/Attention (B = -0.650: 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.535 to -0.139) and Memory (B = -0.518; 95% CI, -4.893 to -0.063) factors. Exocentric navigation on the FMT was related to Executive Function/Attention (B = -8.542: 95% CI, -13.357 to -3.727).

Conclusions. Our tests appear to assess egocentric and exocentric navigation skills in cognitively normal older adults. and these skills are associated with specific cognitive processes such as executive function and memory.”
“In anesthetized and immobilized domestic cats, we have studied the effects of brief reversible inactivation (by cooling to 10 degrees C) of the ipsilateral or contralateral posterotemporal visual (PTV) cortices on: 1) the magnitude of spike-responses of neurons in striate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 17, area V1) to optimized sine-wave modulated contrast-luminosity gratings confined to the classical receptive fields (CRFs) and 2) the relative strengths of modulation of CRF-induced spike-responses by gratings extending into the extra-classical receptive field (ECRF).

These studies show that A beta amyloid deposits can cause the loc

These studies show that A beta amyloid deposits can cause the local aggregation of alpha-syn, but these did not lead

to more extensive alpha-syn pathology. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“When making intertemporal decisions, i.e., decisions between outcomes occurring at different instants in time, humans and animals prefer rewards with short-term availability over rewards that become available in the long run. Discounted utility theory (DUT) is an influential normative model for intertemporal decisions that attempts to capture preference over time. It prescribes which is the best decision to take with respect to consistent, coherent and optimal choice. Over the last few decades, DUT’s descriptive validity has been critically challenged. Empirical studies found systematic violations of several of DUT’s assumptions, including time-consistency of preferences, stationarity, click here constant discounting and utility maximisation. To account for these anomalies, alternative models have been devised in various academic disciplines, including economics,

psychology, biology, philosophy, and most lately, cognitive neuroscience. This article reviews the most recent literature AZD9291 supplier on the behavioural and neural processes underlying intertemporal choices, and elucidates to which extent these findings can be used to explain violations of DUT’s assumptions. In the first three sections, DUT is introduced, and behavioural anomalies are discussed. The fourth part focuses on the neuroscience of intertemporal choice, including its functional

neuroanatomy, attempts to find a discounted value signal in the brain, and recent efforts to identify neural mechanisms producing time-inconsistencies. In the last section, the computational literature on neural learning mechanisms is reviewed. Then, a new, biologically plausible computational model of intertemporal choice is proposed that is able GSK3326595 nmr to explain many of the behavioural anomalies. The implications of these results help to understand why humans and animals frequently decide irrationally and to their long-term economic disadvantage, and which neural mechanisms underly such decisions. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“HIV-1 Protease (PR) and Reverse Transcriptase (RT) genotyping is well established for the management of antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, as it is able to detect gene mutations encoding resistance to ARV compounds or drug classes, that are associated with reduced drug susceptibility (i.e. phenotype). A correct phenotypic interpretation from the derived PR-RI genotype (i.e. virtual phenotype), requires a well characterized geno-phenotype correlative database and appropriate statistical predictive models.

The significant enhancement of neural

responses was obser

The significant enhancement of neural

responses was observed over the entire tested frequency range (0.1-16 kHz) with a relative peak in the band of 3.2-9.6 kHz. The capability of exhibiting spikes synchronizing with successive clicks was also enhanced. All these effects were more apparent when the neurons were driven by high intensity sounds. Salicylate-administration also decreased the mean spontaneous rate in A1 units, and the decrease of spontaneous rate was larger in the units with a high initial spontaneous rate. Our data confirm that salicylate can modulate the neural activity at the cortical level and provide more information for understanding the mechanism of salicylate-induced tinnitus. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The this website rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In

the present study we examined the c-fos expression Z-IETD-FMK order of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and

four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state.

In the prospective analysis, fatigue at baseline was predictive o

In the prospective analysis, fatigue at baseline was predictive of change in walking speed among men (beta = -.04, p < .001) but not among women (beta = -.005, p = .64). Among men, muscle strength accounted up to 15% for the association between baseline fatigue and change in maximum walking


Mobility-related fatigue is associated with slower walking speed in older adults. The results suggest that muscle strength is one of the underlying factors explaining this MK-0518 association.”
“Most drugs of abuse stimulate both locomotor activity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the relationship between the two responses within the same subjects and their reliabilities has been scarcely studied. Our objectives were to study: (1) the consistency and stability across time of locomotor and HPA activation induced by repeated d-amphetamine (AMPH); (2) the relationship between locomotor and hormonal responses to AMPH; and (3) the relationship between novelty-induced activity and both types of responses to the drug.

Male adult rats were exposed to a novel environment to study the locomotor response. Later, they were injected with AMPH (2 mg/kg, sc) for 5 days. In Experiment 1, Plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels

in response to AMPH were studied on days 1, 3, and 5, and locomotor response on days 2 and 4. In Experiment 2, ACTH and corticosterone responses were studied on days 2 and 4, and locomotor response on days 1, 3, and 5.

Across days, both locomotor and HPA responses to PS-341 in vitro the drug were consistent, but independent measures, unrelated to the reactivity to novelty. As measured by the area under the curve, the HPA response to AMPH desensitized YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 ic50 with the repeated injection, whereas the initial locomotor response to the drug increased.

Dissociation exists between HPA and locomotor activation induced by AMPH, which seemed to be both

reliable individual traits. Locomotor reactivity to novelty was related neither to HPA nor to locomotor responses to AMPH.”
“Mortality risk tends to be higher among elderly individuals with higher serum adiponectin levels. The objective of this study was to clarify whether the relationship between adiponectin and a higher risk of disability or death can be explained by physical function, bone mineral density, depression, and malnutrition.

We analyzed 505 individuals who underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment and who agreed to provide information on long-term care insurance. The endpoint was the composite outcome of death and incident disability defined as a first certification for any level of care need. Relationships between adiponectin and incident disability or death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model.

During 6 years of follow-up, 179 incident disabilities or deaths occurred. Among them, 20 and 23 died with and without disability, respectively.

Electroencephalogram (EEG) was continually recorded in order to a

Electroencephalogram (EEG) was continually recorded in order to assess P300 responses, an event-related potential (ERP) associated with attention and memory processes. Trauma history only, and not dissociation or PTSD scores, predicted smaller P300 amplitudes to target tones. To distracting novel sounds, only trauma history and dissociation predicted unique variance in P300 amplitudes. The findings suggest that PTSD may not be central to the attentional disturbances found in traumatized samples, while trauma history and dissociation may play a more important role. Future studies investigating attentional processes post trauma should utilize dissociation scales and a non-trauma

sample. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We evaluated Rigosertib the morbidity of nephrectomy in patients older than age 80 years.

Materials and Methods: Between June 2002 and March 2011, 2,530 patients underwent surgery for renal tumor at 5 French academic centers. Of these patients 180 (7.1%) were age 80 years or older, including 22 (12%) and 158 (88%) who underwent partial and radical nephrectomy, respectively, and 47 (26.1%) who were treated with a laparoscopic approach.

Results: Mean patient age was 82.3 Selleck ABT737 years. Median Charlson score was 4. Mean preoperative glomerular filtration rate was 47 ml/minute. A total

of 136 complications were recorded in 70 patients (38.8% of all patients). Of the patients 28 (15.5%), 25 (13.9%) and 17 (9.4%) experienced 1, 2 and 3 or more complications, respectively. According to the modified Clavien classification grade I, II, III, IV and V complications were observed in 7, 81, 19, 23 and 6 patients, respectively. The transfusion rate was 31.1% (56). On logistic regression analysis the parameters of PF-6463922 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status 2 to 4 (p = 0.035) and preoperative glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/minute (p = 0.03) were independent predictive factors of morbidity.

Conclusions: Morbidity and mortality are significant in the octogenarian population. The

risk of complications should be considered in decision making for patients with renal cell carcinoma older than age 80 years.”
“The objective of this study was to assess the generality of the association of DRD2 and DAT genes and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) diagnosis/symptom severity. Two hundred ethnic Armenians from 12 multigenerational families exposed to the catastrophic 1988 Spitak earthquake were studied. Common polymorphisms A1/A2 alleles of the DRD2 and ’9′ repeat allele of DAT gene were genotyped. Heritability, association and linkage were assessed using variance component genetic analyses. After adjusting for the covariates, the heritabilities of PTSD diagnosis and B and C category symptoms were: 0.37, 0.75 and 0.39 respectively. Category D symptoms were not heritable.

Here we report expression of TGF-beta 1 and its receptors namely,

Here we report expression of TGF-beta 1 and its receptors namely, transforming growth factor-beta

receptor I (T beta RI) and transforming growth factor-beta receptor II (T beta RII) in AMC and BV-2 cells induced by hypoxia. Firstly, increase in TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and TGF-beta 1 release was observed in the corpus callosum in postnatal rats subjected to a single hypoxic exposure. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed a concomitant upregulation of T beta RI and T beta RII mRNA and protein. Secondly, immunofluorescence labeling showed that the preponderant AMC in the corpus callosum were immunoreactive for TGF-beta 1 and its receptors. In rats subjected to hypoxia, immunoexpression of TGF-beta 10058-F4 mw 1 and both receptors was markedly enhanced. In longer surviving rats, the AMC transformed into ramified microglia but retained in them the immunoreactivity. In BV-2 cells exposed to hypoxia, TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and release of TGF-beta 1 into the medium were significantly increased. It is noteworthy that expression of T beta RI and T beta RII mRNA and protein in hypoxic BV-2 cells was reduced indicating a differential response of AMC and BV-2 cells to hypoxia. Notwithstanding, it is unequivocal

that AMC in the developing brain express and release TGF-beta 1 into the ambient environment. We suggest that this may be a mechanism to help autoregulate microglial selleck chemicals llc activation in adverse conditions via its receptors. BGJ398 in vitro (C) 2008 IBRC.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The aim was to examine the effect of various surgical maneuvers during standard surgery for small saphenous varicose veins (SSV).

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients that underwent small saphenous varicose vein surgery. Two-hundred nineteen consecutive patients (234 legs) with isolated primar, or recurrent small saphenous varicose veins undergoing surgery were enrolled in a multicenter study involving nine vascular centers in the United Kingdom. Operative technique was determined by individual surgeon preference; clinical and operative details, including the use of stripping, were recorded. Clinical examination (recurrence rates) and duplex imaging (superficial and deep incompetence) were evaluated at six weeks and one year after surgery.

Results: A total of 204 legs were reviewed at one year; 67 had small saphenous varicose vein stripping, 116 had saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) disconnection only, and the remainder had miscellaneous procedures. The incidence of visible recurrent varicosities at one year was lower after SSV stripping (12 of 67, 18%) than after disconnection only (28 of 116, 24%), although this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the rate of numbness at one year between those who had SSV stripping (20 of 71, 28%) and those who had disconnection only (38 of 134, 28%).

LAIVs have been demonstrated to induce enhanced mucosal and cell-

LAIVs have been demonstrated to induce enhanced mucosal and cell-mediated immunity better than inactivated vaccines while also requiring a smaller dose to achieve a protective immune response. To address the need for a reassortment-incompetent live influenza A virus vaccine, we have designed a chimeric virus that takes advantage of the fact that influenza A and B viruses do not reassort. Our novel vaccine prototype uses an attenuated influenza B virus that has been manipulated to express the ectodomain of the influenza A hemagglutinin protein, the major target for eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The hemagglutinin RNA segment selleck is modified such that it contains

influenza B packaging signals, and therefore it cannot be incorporated into a wild-type influenza A virus. We have applied our strategy to different influenza A virus subtypes and generated chimeric B/PR8 HA (H1), HK68 (H3), and VN (H5) viruses. All recombinant viruses were attenuated both in vitro and in vivo, and immunization with these recombinant viruses protected mice against lethal influenza A virus infection. Overall, our data indicate AZ 628 that

the chimeric live-attenuated influenza B viruses expressing the modified influenza A hemagglutinin are effective LAIVs.”
“A meta-analysis of 41 studies examined the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes in a variety of settings with both child and adult samples.

Results indicated that providing choice enhanced intrinsic motivation, effort, task performance, and perceived competence, among other outcomes. Moderator tests revealed the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation was stronger (a) for instructionally irrelevant choices compared to choices made between activities, versions of a task, rewards, and instructionally relevant options, AZD2014 (b) when 2 to 4 successive choices were given, (c) when rewards were not given after the choice manipulation, (d) when participants given choice were compared to the most controlling forms of control groups, (e) for children compared to adults, (f) for designs that yoked choice and control conditions compared to matched designs in which choice was reduced or designs in which nonyoked, nonmatched controls were used, and (g) when the experiment was conducted in a laboratory embedded in a natural setting. Implications for future research and applications to real-world settings are discussed.”
“The serotonergic centrifugal system innervating the main olfactory bulb (MOB) plays a key role in the modulation of olfactory processing. We have previously demonstrated that this system suffers adaptive changes under conditions of a lack of olfactory input. The present work examines the response of this centrifugal system after mitral cell loss in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant mice.

Its eight gene segments are generated by reassortment of gene seg

Its eight gene segments are generated by reassortment of gene segments of different AIV subtypes. These GSK-3 inhibitor results are helpful for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of AIV in wild birds during migration.”
“BackgroundCongenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary

tract are the most common cause of pediatric kidney failure. These disorders are highly heterogeneous, and the etiologic factors are poorly understood.

MethodsWe performed genomewide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in a family with an autosomal dominant form of congenital abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract (seven affected family members). We also performed a sequence analysis in 311 unrelated patients, as well as histologic and functional studies.

ResultsLinkage analysis identified

five regions of the genome that were shared among all affected family members. Exome sequencing identified a single, rare, deleterious variant within these linkage intervals, a heterozygous splice-site mutation in the dual serine-threonine and tyrosine click here protein kinase gene (DSTYK). This variant, which resulted in aberrant splicing of messenger RNA, was present in all affected family members. Additional, independent DSTYK mutations, including nonsense and splice-site mutations, were detected in 7 of 311 unrelated patients. DSTYK is highly expressed in the maturing epithelia of all major organs, localizing to cell membranes. Knockdown in zebrafish resulted in developmental defects in multiple organs,

which suggested loss of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Consistent with this finding is the observation that DSTYK colocalizes with FGF receptors in the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme. DSTYK knockdown in human embryonic kidney cells inhibited FGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the principal signal downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases.

ConclusionsWe detected independent DSTYK mutations in 2.3% of patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract, a finding that suggests that DSTYK is a major determinant of human urinary tract development, downstream of FGF signaling. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)

Exome sequencing in a family with autosomal dominant congenital Milciclib mouse urinary tract malformations showed a mutation in dual serine-threonine and tyrosine protein kinase (DSTYK), confirmed in other, unrelated patients, identifying a major determinant of human urinary tract development. Congenital malformations of the kidney and urinary tract contribute to 23% of birth defects(1),(2) and account for 40 to 50% of pediatric cases and 7% of adult cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide.(3),(4) These disorders are genetically heterogeneous and encompass a wide range of anatomical defects, such as renal agenesis, renal hypodysplasia, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, or vesicoureteral reflux.

Logistic regression

Logistic regression AZ 628 order analyses, Bayesian statistics, and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed moderate classification accuracy in a sample with mild cognitive impairment. These analyses were also conducted on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and revealed generally lower accuracy than the DAFS financial skills subscale. The

DAFS financial skills subscale can inform the clinician’s opinion about the financial capacity of the severely mentally ill. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aging is an important risk factor for many debilitating diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. In model organisms, interfering with metabolic signaling pathways, including the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 (IIS) and TOR pathways, can protect against age-related pathologies

and increase lifespan. Recent studies in multiple organisms have implicated tryptophan metabolism as a powerful regulator of age-related diseases and lifespan. Its high conservation throughout evolution has enabled studies that begin to dissect the contribution of individual enzymes and metabolites. Here, we focus on the emerging view of tryptophan metabolism as a pathway that integrates environmental and metabolic signals to regulate animal biology and health.”
“The impact of smoke-free law on the respiratory and sensory symptoms among restaurant workers was evaluated. Fifty-two workers in 10 Portuguese restaurants were interviewed selleck chemical before and 2 years after implementation of the smoke-free law. A significant reduction in self-reported workplace Saracatinib research buy environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was observed after the enforcement of the law, as well as a marked reduction in adverse respiratory and sensory symptoms such as dry, itching, irritated, or watery eyes, nasal problems, and sore or dry throat or cough, between pre- and post-ban. This study demonstrates that the smoking

ban was effective in diminishing the exposure symptoms among workers and consequently in improving their respiratory health. These observations may have implications for policymakers and legislators in other countries currently considering the nature and extent of their smoke-free workplace legislation.”
“Sex differences are pervasive in schizophrenia, ranging from differences in the age of onset and symptoms of the illness to structural brain differences. Yet, there has been very little research on the interaction of these differences with established cognitive sex differences that exist in healthy populations. We tested 25 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls on a two-dimensional task of object location memory. It has been previously shown that healthy females outperform healthy males on this task, a result that was upheld in this experiment. However, the female advantage is completely absent in patients with schizophrenia.

Serum levels of HSP- and anti-HSP-70 were measured in 53 patients

Serum levels of HSP- and anti-HSP-70 were measured in 53 patients with BD (26 with and 27 without uveitis). In control group, 25 age- and sex-matched idiopathic uveitis patients were enrolled consecutively. Both groups had no medical problems save uveitis at the time of sampling. Confounders like medications were analysed subsequently. HSP- and anti-HSP-70

values were measured by commercial ELISA kits. Data were analysed by spss 11.5 and medcalc 11.5.1 software. The Mean HSP-70 serum levels were different among aforementioned subgroups (P=0.001, anova). They were elevated in BD uveitis compared with BD without uveitis (4.84 +/- 4.21 versus 2.24 +/- 2.08ng/ml; P=0.045). HSP-70 in sera of BD uveitis was also higher than that parameter in patients with idiopathic uveitis (4.84 +/- 4.21 versus this website 2.37 +/- 3.30ng/ml;

P=0.001; cut-off point value 1.0 9ng/ml, 95% CI 0.610.86, P=0.0002, ss=0.06). However, there was not any statistical difference among those groups in the serum anti-HSP-70 levels (P=0.63, anova). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that among different confounders, only prednisolone increases and BD uveitis decreases HSP-70 levels independently. This prospective cross-sectional study suggested that HSP-70 serum level is impressed over the course of BD uveitis, and it could be utilized to diagnose or predict developing it.”
“The aim of this study was to establish the antioxidant status and oxidative stress in adult patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Wnt inhibitor Eighty-four patients diagnosed with chronic ITP were studied. Fifty-eight age-matched healthy subjects were selected as controls. Serum nitrogen monoxide ( NO), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), superoxide dismutase(SOD), hydrogen peroxide enzyme

(CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) were evaluated by enzyme-linkedimmunosorbentassay (ELISA). It was found that serum SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, TAS levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic ITP than controls (all P<0.05), while serum NO,GSSG, MDA, TOS values were significantly higher (P<0.05). The number of platelet showed a negative correlation with NO, GSSG, MDA, TOS, respectively,while platelet number showed SNS-032 solubility dmso a positive correlation with SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, TAS. These findings suggested that oxidants were increased and antioxidants were decreased in patients with chronic ITP, these may be prominent factors in destructing the platelet membrane. The scavenging of oxygen radical provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of ITP patients.”
“Visual transient events during ongoing eye movement tasks inhibit saccades within a precise temporal window, spanning from around 60-120ms after the event, having maximum effect at around 90ms. It is not yet clear to what extent this saccadic inhibition phenomenon can be modulated by attention.