Finally, it appears that the reuse Of such polymers is possible

Finally, it appears that the reuse Of such polymers is possible. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 2270-2279, 2009″
“Background: The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS) is an illness-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire outcomes instrument.

Objectives: Research questions were: 1) How well does the WURSS-21 assess the symptoms and functional impairments associated with common cold? 2) How well can this instrument measure change over time (responsiveness)? 3) What is the minimal important difference (MID) that can be detected by the WURSS-21? 4) What are the descriptive statistics for area under

the time severity curve (AUC)? 5) What sample sizes would trials require to detect MID or AUC criteria? 6) What does factor analysis tell us about the underlying Entinostat dimensional structure of the common cold? 7) How reliable are items, domains, and summary scores represented in WURSS? 8) For each of these considerations, how well does the WURSS-21 compare to the WURSS-44, Jackson, and SF-8?

Study Design and Setting: People with Jackson-defined colds were recruited from the community in and around Madison, Wisconsin. Participants were enrolled within 48 hours of first

cold symptom and monitored for up to 14 days of illness. Half the sample filled out the WURSS-21 in the morning and the WURSS-44 in the evening, with the other half reversing the daily order. External comparators were the SF-8, a 24-hour recall general health measure Torin 2 chemical structure yielding separate physical and mental health scores, and the eight-item Jackson cold index, which assesses symptoms, but not functional impairment or quality of life.

Results: In all, 230 participants were monitored for 2,457 person-days. Participants were aged 14 to 83 years

(mean 34.1, SD 13.6), majority female (66.5%), mostly white (86.0%), and represented substantive education and income diversity. WURSS-21 items demonstrated similar performance when embedded within the WURSS-44 or in the stand-alone WURSS-21. Minimal important difference (MID) and Guyatt’s responsiveness index were 10.3, 0.71 for the WURSS-21 and 18.5, 0.75 for the WURSS-44. Factorial analysis suggested an eight selleck kinase inhibitor dimension structure for the WURSS-44 and a three dimension structure for the WURSS-21, with composite reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.97, and Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.76 to 0.96. Both WURSS versions correlated significantly with the Jackson scale (W-21 R = 0.85; W-44 R = 0.88), with the SF-8 physical health (W-21 R = -0.79; W-44 R = -0.80) and SF-8 mental health (W-21 R = -0.55; W-44 R = -0.60).

Conclusion: The WURSS-44 and WURSS-21 perform well as illness-specific quality-of-life evaluative outcome instruments. Construct validity is supported by the data presented here.

The antibiofilm activity of the isolated A auricula melanin agai

The antibiofilm activity of the isolated A. auricula melanin against Escherichia coli K-12, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Selleckchem JQ-EZ-05 and P. fluorescens P-3 was examined using crystal violet and LIVE/DEAD BacLight staining as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that A. auricula melanin could inhibit significantly biofilm formation of E. coli K-12, P. aeruginosa PAO1

and P. fluorescens P-3, while no inhibitory effects on growth were found. CLSM analysis showed that A. auricula melanin treatment resulted in thinner and looser biofilm compared with the control. The current study reveals for the first time the antibiofilm activity of melanin derived from A. auricula.”
“Objective: The aim of the study is to obtain a detailed overview of the revision findings after stapes operations and to draw conclusions on a stapes prosthesis that can be recommended.

Study Design: Retrospective case series.

Setting: Tertiary otologic referral center.


Approximately 12,000 middle ear operations within a period of 26 years were evaluated. The findings of the revisions were classified into surgeon related, prosthesis related, and other causes.

Results: Three hundred forty-three stapes revisions were done. Many different prostheses were found: the most common were Schuknecht prostheses and Teflon platinum, gold, and titanium pistons. Polyethylene strut, Teflon wire pistons, Shea (Teflon) pistons, and other techniques, such as columella selleck chemicals or malleo-vestibulopexy, were rarely found.

There are specific findings correlating to certain prostheses: Schuknecht prostheses were too short in 50% of the revisions (surgeon related), Teflon platinum caused necrosis or arrosion of the long incudal process

(prostheses related) in 69%, and gold caused reparative granuloma sometimes combined with necosis of the incus in 70% (prostheses related). There was no specific diagnostic finding with titanium pistons, neither surgeon nor material related.

Conclusion: An analysis of revision findings over an extended observation period can enable middle-ear surgeons to Proton Pump inhibitor improve their surgical techniques and to select the best suited prosthesis. Self-fabricated stapes prostheses (e. g., Schuknecht) do not conform to required quality standards and should not be used. GoPi, which is no longer available, and TPlPi showed prosthesis-related diagnostic findings. The titanium prostheses used by the authors have proven to be excellently compatible and can therefore be recommended as safe stapes prostheses.”
“Background: In Parkinson’s disease the degree of motor impairment can be classified with respect to tremor dominant and akinetic rigid features.

The crystallization index (CrI) of BC/CNTs acetate was better tha

The crystallization index (CrI) of BC/CNTs acetate was better than BC acetate, i.e. 97 : 3 and 93 : 7, respectively. The crystallite size of BC microfibrils in BC/CNTs sheet was reduced because of the impregnated CNTs. However, the reduction of crystallite size for BC/CNTs acetate was lower than that of BC acetate showing that the existence of CNTs within BC micofibrils had protected the BC crystal structure from further destruction by acetylating agent.

CONCLUSION: CNTs is a powerful substance that acted as a void filler between BC crystalline structure and protected

the nano-biocomposite from total degradation selleck by the acetylation process. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Lactoferrin (LF) is one of the prebiotics present in the human body. A 38-year-old multiparous woman with poor obstetrical histories, three consecutive preterm premature rupture of membrane at

the 19th, 23rd and 25th week of pregnancy, was referred to our hospital. She was diagnosed as having refractory vaginitis. Although estriol vaginal tablets were used for 4 months, the vaginitis was not cured. We administrated vaginal tablets and oral agents of prebiotic LF, resulting in a Lactobacillus predominant vaginal flora. When she was pregnant, Rabusertib she continued to use the LF, and the Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was continuously observed during pregnancy. An elective cesarean section was performed at the 38th week of pregnancy. When the administration of LF was discontinued after the delivery, Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was disappeared.”
“BACKGROUND: Effluent released from industry is a mixture of various pollutants. For the degradation of

complex pollutants, mixed bacterial cultures can be more effective than a single culture. This study investigated the balance of bacterial populations in a mixed culture for maximum reduction of pollutants.

RESULTS: This study deals with the degradation and detoxification of pulp papermill effluent (PPME) by three bacterial strains, i.e. Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens and Bacillus cereus in different ratios, and found that two ratios, NVP-HSP990 nmr 4 : 1 : 1 and 1 : 4 : 1, were effective for the degradation of PPME. These ratios reduced the various pollution parameters. Enzyme bioassay revealed that more enzyme was produced during degradation for the ratio 4 : 1 : 1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the ratio 4 : 1 : 1 degraded 95% of lignin and related compounds, and chlorophenols up to 98%, whereas ratio 1 : 4 : 1 reduced lignin by 84% and chlorophenols by 58% after 7 days incubation. Degradation products were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A seed germination bioassay on Phaseolous mungo L. revealed that toxicity was reduced by the ratio 4 : 1 : 1.

Indeed, they are applied for lengthy periods in low birth weight

Indeed, they are applied for lengthy periods in low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In addition to these side effects we have to consider several other stressful events. In our opinion, reducing invasiveness in

the NICU is a process where the main steps are recognizing a need for the organization of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures buy Autophagy Compound Library with respect for the rhythm of the newborn, recognizing the fragility of preterm newborns and their brain plasticity, improving environmental standards in both structural terms and staff behaviour, and promoting the active role of parents in supporting the development of the newborn.”
“The present work evaluated the protective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus orbicularis against the mutagenicity of gamma-radiation.

The extract activity was determined in pre- and post-treatment procedures using Salmonella reversion assay. LY2835219 price In either case, the plant extract protected bacterial cells against the mutations induced by gamma-radiation, suggesting that it contains antimutagenic compounds which confer protection by at least two different mechanisms: i) as antioxidants targeting the oxidative mutagens induced by gamma-radiation and ii) by modulation of the cellular repair enzymes acting on damaged DNA. The results are discussed in relation to the chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of P. orbicularis.”
“Extremely-low-birth-weight infants (ELBW) should be given nutrients to enable them to grow at the same rate as foetuses of the same gestational age, and lean body components, particularly the brain, are dependent JNK-IN-8 in vitro on protein intake. Fortified human milk remains the best food for these preterms. Two groups of preterm infants weighing 580-1250 g and with a gestational age of 23-32 weeks were fed with different protein intakes in fortified human/maternal milk (3.5 g kg(-1) per day and 4.8 g kg(-1) per day in the control and extra-protein

groups, respectively). The tolerance, intrahospital growth, neurological outcome and anthropometric data until 9 months corrected age were evaluated. The extraprotein regime showed an intrahospital growth advantage (mostly in growth of head circumference, p 0.02, and length, p 0.04) only in the preterms weighing 580-980 g and aged 23-30 weeks. In the same preterms, the Griffith Development Mental Score at 3 months corrected age showed higher scores than in the control group (p 0.04). Growth during the post-discharge period for the experimental group at 9 months corrected age showed mean z-score values for length higher than those in the control group (p 0.04).”
“The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a pulsatile system of theophylline based on chronopharmaceutical considerations. The basic design consists of an impermeable capsule body, which contains the drug and is closed by an erodible tablet plug.

The endometrium and ovary were evaluated by transvaginal ultrason

The endometrium and ovary were evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography.

RESULTS: Among 98 enrolled women, 86 completed the treatment (n=44 and n=42 for the pH-balanced gel

group and placebo group, respectively). Vaginal dryness and dyspareunia improved Dinaciclib in vitro more in the pH-balanced gel group than in the placebo group (baseline mean 8.20 compared with end-point mean 4.23 [P=.001] and 8.23 compared with 5.48 [P=.040], respectively). Vaginal pH-balanced gel reduced the vaginal pH (gel: baseline mean 6.49 compared with end-point mean 5.00; placebo: 6.22 compared with 5.69 [P <.001]), and enhanced vaginal maturation index (gel: 45.5 compared with 51.2; placebo: 46.4 compared with 47.9 [P <.001]) and vaginal health index (gel: 15.8 compared with 21.1; placebo 14.3 compared with 16.98 [P=.002]). There was no significant VS-6063 difference in adverse effects between the two groups except for mild irritation at the early time of pH-balanced gel administration.

CONCLUSION: Vaginal pH-balanced gel could relieve vaginal symptoms and improve vaginal health in breast cancer survivors who have experienced menopause after cancer treatment.”
“The formation of N’-(benzoyloxy)benzenecarboximidamides

and their subsequent cyclization to 3,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles in different solvents were studied. A probable reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of the obtained results.”
“Background: In 2010, almost 11,000 females were killed in motor vehicle crashes, and racial/ethnic minorities were affected disproportionally.

Methods: To assess disparities in motor vehicle-related Selleckchem Tariquidar death rates by race/ethnicity among females in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed 2005-2009 data from the National Vital Statistics System. Death rates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and differences between 2005 and 2009 death rates were examined.

Results: The motor vehicle-related death rate for females was 6.8 deaths per 100,000 population in 2009. American Indian/Alaska

Native females had the highest motor vehicle-related death rates, followed by whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. The greatest decrease in death rates between 2005 and 2009 occurred among whites from a rate of 9.4 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 9.2-9.6) to 7.1 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 6.9-7.2; absolute rate change: -2.3; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Despite the recent declines in motor vehicle-related death rates noted in this article, the need remains for increased use of evidence-based strategies to reduce the burden of motor vehicle-related deaths among females overall and especially among American Indian/Alaska Natives.”
“Objective: To examine the frequency, outcome, and clinical predictors of cardiac complications as the initial manifestation of pheochromocytoma.

They often manifest in the fully awake state, as part of simple p

They often manifest in the fully awake state, as part of simple partial seizures, but they also can be AZD8055 supplier associated to different degrees of disturbed conciousness. Initial ictal symptoms often

are closely related to the physiological functions of the cortical circuit involved and, therefore, can provide localizing information. When brain regions related to sensory integration are involved, the seizure discharge can cause specific kinds of hallucinations, for example, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and cutaneous sensory sensations. In addition to these elementary sensory perceptions, quite complex hallucinations related to a partial seizure can arise, for example, perception of visual scenes or hearing music. By involving psychic and emotional spheres of human perception, many seizures also give rise to hallucinatory emotional states JQ-EZ-05 price (e.g., fear or happiness) or even more complex hallucinations (e.g., visuospatial phenomena), illusions (e.g., deja vu, out-of-body experience), or delusional beliefs (e.g., identity change) that often are not easily recognized as epileptic. Here we suggest a classification into elementary sensory, complex sensory, and complex integratory seizure symptoms. Epileptic hallucinations, illusions, and delusions shine interesting light on the

physiology and functional anatomy of brain regions involved and their functions in the human being. This article, in which 10 cases are described, introduces the fascinating phenomenology of subjective seizure symptoms. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Hyperbranched polyesteramides (HB1 and HB2) were prepared by the bulk reaction between phthalic anhydride (PhAn) with either diisopropanolamine (DiPA) or diethanolamine (DEA), respectively. The hyperbranched polyesteramides were characterized by IR, GPC, H-1-NMR, and thermal analysis (TGA and DSC). The effects of solutions of 1, 3, and 5 wt % HB1

and HB2 on the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) were studied. Measurements of water of consistency, setting times, bulk density, apparent porosity, and compressive strength for the cement pastes were performed. Some selected cement pastes were characterized by IR and SEM photos. The results showed that HB1 and HB2 slightly increased the compressive strength, the combined water and density while Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor decreased the apparent porosity. IR of the formed phases showed increase in the intensities of the spectra for the cement pastes mixed with HB1 and HB2 when compared with those of the blank cement pastes. SEM images showed that the incorporation of HB1 and HB2 affected only shape or morphology and crystallinity of the formed hydrates. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3054-3064, 2011″
“Biomolecular patterning on a nanoscale/microscale on chip surfaces is one of the most important techniques used in vitro biochip technologies.

Methods: We systematically searched Pubmed,

Methods: We systematically searched Pubmed, A-769662 inhibitor Embase and CENTRAL bibliographies for studies on the effectiveness of strategies aimed at changing health care professionals’ behavior in the management of children with URTIs.

Results: The search yielded 11,788 references, of which 18 studies were eligible, and 10 met the inclusion criteria. Most strategies

were aimed at changing antibiotic prescribing behavior in children with acute otitis media. All strategies used (i.e. computer interventions, educational sessions with or without education materials, collaborative development of guidelines and a training video in combination with a risk factor checklist) were effective in changing health care professionals practice regarding children with URTIs. Multifaceted and computer strategies work best. Computer interventions reduced antibiotic prescribing by 4% and 34% and

increased guideline compliance by 41%. Educational sessions combined with education materials reduced inappropriate antibiotic prescription by 2% and 17% and increased knowledge of compliance enhancing strategies by 28% and 29%. Collaborative guideline development combined with educational materials reduced inappropriate antibiotic prescription by 24% and 40%. Finally, by a combination of a training video and a risk factor checklist appropriate referrals by the GP to the otolaryngologist increased by 37%. Since the costs associated buy Silmitasertib with the interventions were not explicitly mentioned in the articles, no conclusion on cost-effectiveness can be drawn.

Conclusion: Multifaceted and computer strategies

appear to be most effective to put evidence into practice in the area of URTIs in children. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cardiac myxoma is the most common benign tumor of the heart. It presents with a variety of clinical signs and symptomatology making diagnosis frequently quite a challenge. We review our experience with 41 patients who underwent Natural Product Library screening surgical intervention for cardiac myxoma between 1994 and 2011. All patients’ preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were recorded. They all had a standard sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic cardiac arrest and were followed up with clinical examination and echocardiography. The surgical goal was to remove not only the tumor but the whole area of attachment to prevent recurrence. Biatrial approach facilitated the complete excision of the tumor. Surgical excision of cardiac myxoma carries a low-operative risk and gives excellent short- and long-term results. (C) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“This study aimed to assess the variability in respect of titer and properties of xylanase from Trichoderma reesei SAF3 under both solid-state and submerged fermentation.

6%) had not been previously diagnosed Patients with psychiatric

6%) had not been previously diagnosed. Patients with psychiatric disorders had lower

scores in all dimensions of the SF-36 when compared to those who had no psychiatric diagnosis. Scores of physical functioning and bodily pain domains were lower for those suffering from a current psychiatric disorder when compared to those who had had a psychiatric disorder in the past. Females had lower scores of bodily pain and mental health dimensions when SB525334 solubility dmso compared to males. Scores for mental health dimension were also lower for patients with advanced fibrosis. The presence of a psychiatric comorbidity was the variable that was most associated with the different scores in the SF-36, compared to other variables such as age, gender, aminotransferase levels, and degree of fibrosis.”
“Cancer progression has been associated with the presence of tumor-associated M2-macrophages (M2-TAMs) able to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses. It is also often associated with metastasis-induced bone destruction mediated by osteoclasts. Both cell types are controlled by the CD115 (CSF-1R)/colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1, M-CSF) pathway, making CD115 a promising target for cancer therapy. Anti-human CD115 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that inhibit the receptor function have Erismodegib been generated in a number of laboratories. These mAbs

compete with CSF-1 binding to CD115, dramatically affecting monocyte survival and preventing osteoclast and macrophage differentiation, but they also block CD115/CSF-1 internalization and degradation, which could lead to potent rebound CSF-1 effects in patients after mAb treatment has ended. We thus generated and selected a non-ligand competitive anti-CD115 mAb that exerts only partial inhibitory effects on CD115 signaling without blocking the internalization or the degradation of the CD115/CSF-1 complex. This mAb, H27K15, affects monocyte survival only minimally, but downregulates

LCL161 osteoclast differentiation and activity. Importantly, it inhibits monocyte differentiation to CD163(+)CD64(+) M2-polarized suppressor macrophages, skewing their differentiation toward CD14(-)CD1a(+) dendritic cells (DCs). In line with this observation, H27K15 also drastically inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secretion and reduces interleukin-6 production; these two molecules are known to be involved in M2-macrophage recruitment. Thus, the non-depleting mAb H27K15 is a promising anti-tumor candidate, able to inhibit osteoclast differentiation, likely decreasing metastasis-induced osteolysis, and able to prevent M2 polarization of TAMs while inducing DCs, hence contributing to the creation of more efficient anti-tumor immune responses.”
“Background: The influence of tinnitus on speech reception is under debate. A few previous studies addressed this issue and compared speech reception in groups with and without tinnitus, with tinnitus arising in both ears or in the same test ear.

This article will review new molecular targets for the treatment

This article will review new molecular targets for the treatment of CRC and discuss possible implications for clinical therapy. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IAA and ABA in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of the main Fe-stress physiological root responses in cucumber plants subjected to shoot Fe functional deficiency. Changes in the expression of the genes CsFRO1, CsIRT1, CsHA1 and CsHA2 (coding for Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FCR), the Fe(II) transporter and H(+)-ATPase, respectively) and in the

enzyme activity see more of FCR and the acidification capacity were measured. We studied first the ability of exogenous applications of IAA and ABA to induce these Fe-stress root responses in plants grown in Fe-sufficient conditions. The results showed that IAA was able to activate these responses at the transcriptional and functional levels, whereas the results with ABA were less conclusive. Thereafter, we explored the role of IAA in plants with or without shoot Fe functional deficiency in the presence of two types of IAA inhibitors, affecting either IAA polar transport (TIBA) or IAA functionality (PCIB). The results showed that IAA is involved in the regulation at the transcriptional and functional

levels of both Fe root acquisition (FCR, Fe(II) transport) and rhizosphere acidification (H(+)-ATPase), although through different, and probably

complementary, mechanisms. These results suggest that IAA is involved Bcl-2 protein family in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of Fe-stress physiological root responses. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The optical efficiency of GaN-based multiple quantum well (MQW) and light emitting diode (LED) structures grown on Si(111) substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy was measured and compared with equivalent structures on sapphire. The crystalline quality of the LED structures was comprehensively characterized using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and plan-view selleckchem transmission electron microscopy. A room temperature photoluminescence (PL) internal quantum efficiency (IQE) as high as 58% has been achieved in an InGaN/GaN MQW on Si, emitting at 460 nm. This is the highest reported PL-IQE of a c-plane GaN-based MQW on Si, and the radiative efficiency of this sample compares well with similar structures grown on sapphire. Processed LED devices on Si also show good electroluminescence (EL) performance, including a forward bias voltage of similar to 3.5 V at 20 mA and a light output power of 1 mW at 45 mA from a 500 x 500 mu m(2) planar device without the use of any additional techniques to enhance the output coupling.

The expression, regulation and function

of IL-8 in dogs a

The expression, regulation and function

of IL-8 in dogs are little known. Recent studies have associated angiogenesis and inflammatory processes with tumor malignancy. We investigated a possible correlation between IL-8 expression and mammary tumor prognosis in female dogs. IL-8 expression was measured in 50 dogs with mammary neoplasia by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical staining was done with anti-IL-8 antibodies and PCR amplifications were performed in a 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR system. Gene expression stability was analyzed by the geNorm software. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that IL-8 expression decreased in malignant mammary cells compared to normal mammary tissue, while weak immunostaining was associated with a diagnosis of

carcinoma. Complementing earlier studies on IL-8 expression in several types of cancer, including mammary cancer, we conclude that IL-8 has potential for use as a prognostic marker for canine mammary neoplasia.”
“A promising new concept of a diamond-amplified photocathode for generation of high-current, high-brightness, and low thermal emittance electron beams was recently proposed and is Selleck FK228 currently under active development. Detailed understanding of physical processes with multiple energy and time scales is required to design reliable and efficient diamond-amplifier cathodes. We have implemented models, within the VORPAL computational framework, to simulate secondary electron generation

and charge transport in selleckchem diamond in order to facilitate the investigation of the relevant effects involved. The models include inelastic scattering of electrons and holes for generation of electron-hole pairs, elastic, phonon, and charge impurity scattering. We describe the integrated modeling capabilities we developed and present results on charge gain and collection efficiency as a function of primary electron energy and applied electric field. We compare simulation results with available experimental data. The simulations show an overall qualitative agreement with the observed charge gain from transmission mode experiments and have enabled better understanding of the collection efficiency measurements. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3491041]“
“Ayu17-449, a novel gene in mice, has been identified as a tumor-suppressor gene in myeloid malignancy; its product catalyzes the conversion of 5-methylcytosine of DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. However, in vivo, its functional target genes and biological function have remained unclear. Based on the assumption that alterations in the expression of the Ayu17-449 gene affect the expression of other related genes, we screened a microarray of altered gene expression in Ayu17-449(-/-) and Ayu17-449(+/+) mice. We identified 4049 genes with altered expression, including 1296 up-regulated (fold change >= 2) and 2753 down-regulated (fold change <= 0.