Strong parent-child agreement was found on scales measuring obser

Strong parent-child agreement was found on scales measuring observable behaviors (respiratory symptoms). Convergence between CFQ-R scales and health outcomes provided evidence of construct validity.

Conclusions The CFQ-R demonstrated robust psychometric properties and consistent associations with health outcomes in a large national sample.”
“We have performed systematic studies of wurtzite GaN/AlN quantum dots grown on polar and nonpolar surfaces. For this purpose, experimentally

observed quantum dot geometries have been employed within an eight-band k . p model. The spatial separation of electrons and holes due to polarization potentials is found to be much larger in nonpolar than in polar grown quantum dots. In order to improve the electron-hole overlap and thus the recombination rates, we have varied the shape, size, and the periodic arrangement of nonpolar quantum dots. We observed the strongest improvement of the charge carrier overlap in nonpolar quantum dots that have a reduced dimension. If the size is reduced below

60% of the dimensions reported recently in literature, this increase is clearly more pronounced than for the polar quantum dots, indicating much better recombination rates in smaller nonpolar quantum dots. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3246864]“
“In click here this study, transglutaminase (TGase)mediated crosslinking of gelatin on the surface of wool and its effect on the properties of wool fabric were investigated. For the wool fabric used in this study, gelatin (3 g/L) treatment for 1 h combined with 20 U/g of fabric microbial TGase reduced the area shrinkage of KMnO(4)-pretreated wool fabric from 6.53 +/- 0.06 to 1.92 +/- 0.15%, which was more effective than that treated with gelatin alone (in which the area shrinkage was reduced to 4.02 +/- 0.10%). At the same time, the tensile strength recovered from 267 +/- 2.0 to 335 +/- 2.1 N. The antifelting ability of treated wool fabric exhibited better washing durability. Scanning electron micrographs GSK1120212 purchase showed that

the gelatin material smoothed the wool fiber surface by coating or filling the raised scales of the wool with TGase. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 2598-2604, 2009″
“Purpose To evaluate the factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a population of Spanish adolescents.

Methods Cross-sectional study among 4,146 individuals (mean age 16.3 years). The students completed a health questionnaire that included the GHQ-12. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with four factor structure models. Three of the models were theory-driven: unidimensional, two-dimensional (positive and negative questions), model proposed by Graetz (anxiety and depression, social dysfunction, loss of confidence); and the fourth model was based on our exploratory factor analysis (EFA).

Results The Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency was 0.82.

991 for SGR, 0 993 for LT) The secondary model is therefore

991 for SGR, 0.993 for LT). The secondary model is therefore in good agreement with the validation and may be used as a practical prediction for A. hydrophila growth on squid. Ultimately, the developed models are of importance in reducing A. hydrophila levels in the seafood production, processing, and distribution.”
“Purpose: To clarify the changes that occur in drainage vessels of dysplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during hepatocarcinogenesis by using computed tomography (CT) during arterial portography (CTAP) and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA),

with histologic findings as the reference standard.

Materials and Methods: Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. According to the findings at CTAP and CTHA, 46 surgically resected hepatocellular nodules were classified into three types: type A (n = 18) (equivalent or decreased portal perfusion compared with background liver at CTAP, decreased arterial perfusion, GSK2118436 supplier and no corona enhancement [perinodular contrast material drainage] at CTHA), type B (n = 13) (no portal perfusion, increased arterial perfusion, and thin (<= 2-mm) corona enhancement), or type C (n = 15) (no portal perfusion, increased arterial perfusion, and thick (> 2-mm) corona enhancement). We compared the histopathologic features

and microangioarchitecture between the types.

Results: Type A nodules histologically consisted of dysplastic nodules and well-differentiated HCC; type B and C nodules were moderately differentiated HCC. Replacing growth was commonly observed in type A nodules, whereas compressing growth was more frequently seen in types B and C. Sixty percent of type C nodules had a fibrous capsule. There were significantly fewer intranodular hepatic veins in types B and C. Serial pathologic slices demonstrated continuity from intranodular

capillarized sinusoids to hepatic veins in type A nodules and to surrounding hepatic sinusoids in type B nodules. In type C nodules, SNS-032 intranodular capillarized sinusoids were connected to extranodular portal veins either directly or through portal venules within the fibrous capsule.

Conclusion: Drainage vessels of HCC change from hepatic veins to hepatic sinusoids and then to portal veins during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. (c) RSNA, 2009″
“Study Design. A preliminary cross-sectional comparative study of adolescents with nonspecific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) and healthy controls. Objective. To investigate whether differences in spinal kinematic and trunk muscle activity exist in both usual and slump sitting in adolescents with NSCLBP.

Summary of Background. Evidence suggests that low back pain commonly develops in adolescence and increases the risk for low back pain in adulthood. Sitting is an important consideration in adolescents with NSCLBP: currently there are no reports investigating their motor control strategies in sitting.


Race performance variables were compared between horses with and

Race performance variables were compared between horses with and without lesions and between horses categorized by 1-furlong presale workout times (< or >= 11 seconds).

Results-299 horses had >= 1 lesion, and 654 had no lesion detected. Odds of starting a race and of earning money racing were lower for horses with any lesion and lower for horses with proximal phalangeal dorsoproximal articular margin selleck products chip fracture, proximal sesamoid bone fracture or sesamoiditis, or wedge-shaped central or third tarsal bones, compared with horses that had no lesion. For horses that raced, proximal phalangeal dorsoproximal articular margin chip fractures were associated with lower lifetime earnings, and flattening of the medial

femoral condyle was associated with fewer 3-year-old racing starts, compared with values for horses that

had no ERK screening lesion. Horses with workout times < 11 seconds had greater odds of having lifetime starts, lifetime earnings, and maximum purse above threshold (median) values than did horses with slower workout times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-No radiographic lesions prevented all affected horses from racing. Among horses that raced, few differences were found in performance for horses with and without lesions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:969-976)”
“Background: Few studies have investigated the association of dietary carbohydrate and fiber intake with breast cancer risk in women in China, where carbohydrate intake is traditionally high.

Objective: The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber with breast cancer risk and to determine whether the effect of these dietary intakes is modified by age and selected insulin- or estrogen-related risk factors.

Design: A total of 74,942 women aged 40-70 y were recruited into the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a population-based cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed by in-person interviews. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate associations.


During an average of 7.35 y of follow-up, 616 incident breast cancer cases were documented. A higher carbohydrate intake was associated selleck compound with a higher risk of premenopausal breast cancer (P for trend = 0.002). Compared with the lowest quintile, the hazard ratios (and 95% CIs) were 1.47 (1.00, 2.32) and 2.01 (1.26, 3.19) for the fourth and fifth quintiles, respectively. A similar pattern was found for glycemic load. The association between carbohydrate intake and breast cancer was significantly modified by age; the increased breast cancer risk associated with carbohydrate intake was restricted to women who were younger than 50 y. No significant association of breast cancer risk with glycemic index or dietary fiber intake was found.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that a high carbohydrate intake and a diet with a high glycemic load may be associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women or women,50 y.

86 mm +/- 0 47 (standard deviation), 3 68 mm +/- 2 60, and 3 60 m

86 mm +/- 0.47 (standard deviation), 3.68 mm +/- 2.60, and 3.60 mm +/- 2.57, respectively. Experts had a 70% probability of sampling a prior biopsy target volume of 0.5 cm(3) with 2D transrectal US; however, the probability approached 100% with guided 3D transrectal US. Biopsy accuracy was not significantly different between experts and residents

for any modality; however, experts were significantly (P < .05) faster than residents with each modality.

Conclusion: Repeat biopsy of the prostate learn more with 2D transrectal US has limited accuracy. Compared with 2D transrectal US, the biopsy accuracy of both experts and residents improved with guided 3D transrectal US but did not improve with conventional 3D transrectal US. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“The relationship between specific epilepsy syndromes and particular sleep symptoms has not been well delineated. The authors’ aim was to test the hypothesis that children with rolandic epilepsy exhibit more frequent sleep problems and daytime sleepiness compared with children without epilepsy. They compared parent-reported sleep behaviors of 43 children with rolandic epilepsy aged 6 to 16 years recruited from 5 US pediatric neurology

centers with a historical reference and sleep clinic sample using the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire. The authors compared the differences in mean frequency of sleep problems and patterns. Total Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire scores were significantly higher (P < .001) in the Alvocidib research buy rolandic epilepsy sample than reference. Parents of children with rolandic epilepsy reported

a significantly shorter sleep duration (P < .006), more frequent parasomnias (P < .008), and increased daytime sleepiness (P < .001). Thus, parents of children with rolandic epilepsy reported more problematic sleep and daytime impairment compared with a reference sample of children.”
“Nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is known as a significant risk factor for nosocomial infections, and clearance of its nasal colonization greatly reduces the risk. In the present study the preparation and characterizations of the chitosan-o/w cream incorporated with lysostaphin (CCL) were described. It showed that the concentration of incorporated lysostaphin had a direct relationship with its release behavior from the cream. It was rapid at 2 and 3.5 mg lysostaphin/g cream and of a more sustained pattern at 5 mg lysostaphin/g cream. Efficacy of lysostaphin released from the CCL cream to inhibit S.aureus growth was higher than that of lysostaphin delivery routinely treated, as demonstrated by the reduction of the mucociliary transport rate (MTR) in contrast to the control graphite particles (p < 0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that drug delivery by the CCL holds its potential as a local nasal anti-S.aureus infection.</.”
“Purpose: To evaluate a technique to perform fluoroscopically directed thoracic transforaminal epidural injections.

05) In Group 3, the intragroup signal-noise ratios did not diffe

05). In Group 3, the intragroup signal-noise ratios did not differ significantly at the frequencies tested (p > 0.05). Comparison of the three groups showed statistically significant differences among the groups (p < 0.05). The post hoc Bonferroni correction showed statistically significant differences among all three groups (p < 0.016). The median signal-noise ratio of the three groups tended

to increase (z-value was positive for all the frequencies tested; p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Micronized flavonoid fraction (Daflon) is effective against cisplatin-induced AZD1208 purchase ototoxicity in guinea pigs. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Reinvestigation of the acetone extract of Teucrium tomentosum yielded a new neo-clerodane diterpenoid, teuctomin (1), along with 6-O-acetyl-teucmicropodin (2), teugracilin-A (3), 6 alpha-hydroxyteuscordin (4) and 6 alpha-acetoxyteuscordin (5). The structure of the new compound was elucidated comprehensively using 1D and 2D NMR methods. Compounds showed effective antifeedancy against Plutella xylostella at 10 mu g cm(-2) of leaf area.”
“Objective: Otoplasty is the most common aesthetic surgical procedure performed in children. The goals for auricular surgery and the proportions of

an aesthetically pleasing ear appear to be based on the aesthetic opinions of individual surgeons rather than on evidence-based data. Our study aimed to determine whether identifying an aesthetically pleasing auricle is possible.

Methods: We used digital photographs of 29 auricles, a standardized camera setup, a panel of 20 plastic surgeons, and PF-02341066 mouse a visual analogue scale (VAS). We then analyzed the scores assigned

by the panel for mean, median, standard deviation, analysis of variance, Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test, and Top 5 rankings.

Results: Ranking by the panel was statistically significant (p < 0.000001).

Conclusions: It is possible to statistically rank the aesthetics of auricles, although it is difficult to identify the structural details that made an auricle aesthetically pleasing. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new dinorclerone diterpenoid glycoside, named 1-deacetyltinosposide A (1), was isolated from the stem of Tinospora sinensis together with 10 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive GW786034 mouse spectroscopic techniques (MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR experiments).”
“Objective: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) has become a well accepted clinical entity. ANSD has now become easy to recognize with advent of test battery approach for hearing loss evaluation. However, little is known about its epidemiology and aetiology, especially its prevalence and incidence in India. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and audiological characteristics of ANSD in our tertiary care hospital at New Delhi, India.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled all the paediatric cases i.e.

Immunohistochemical results showed that Notch1-IC protein express

Immunohistochemical results showed that Notch1-IC protein expression paralleled the mRNA level. Breast cancer patients’ clinical parameters suggested that Notch1 expression was higher in stage II disease and lower in more advanced stages. The Notch3 positive rate was higher in patients with lower levels of Notch1, and the Notch3 positive rate was lower in patients with higher levels of Notch1. No apparent correlation of Notch molecules with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) was found. Though high Notch1 and Notch3 RNA levels tended to correlate with c-erbB2 expression, no statistical significance was found.

Conclusion: Notch molecules are useful biomarkers

in breast cancer especially for Notch1 and DLL4, and Notch1 is expressed differently in different

stages of human breast cancer.”
“Background: Children eligible for the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program are AZD2014 in vivo immunized against influenza at lower rates and less likely to receive their second recommended dose. Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has higher vaccine efficacies (VEs) than trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Increased use of LAIV could provide better protection against influenza for this vulnerable population.

Methods: Published VE estimates and vaccine utilization data from a nationwide study of randomly selected pediatric practices were used to model percentages of VFC children that would find more be immune following URMC-099 immunization.

Results: A total of 22,329 influenza vaccine doses were administered to 20,626 VFC-eligible children aged 24 months to 17 years in the study population. Among children recommended to receive 2 doses, only 1234 of 3018 (41%) aged 24 to 59 months and 469 of 1908 (25%)

aged 5 to 8 years received their second dose. Of the vaccinated VFC population, 73% to 83% would be immune using LAIV compared with 53% to 68% with TIV. Differences in aggregate immunity were greatest among 24- to 59-month olds with 71% to 78% of LAIV immunized children immune compared with 48% to 60% with TIV. In this model, 29% to 47% more children aged 24 to 59 months would be immune prior to peak influenza season when vaccinated with LAIV.

Conclusions: Because VE is higher and most VFC children fail to receive their second recommended dose, population protection is substantially higher with LAIV. Although LAIV cannot be given to all children, LAIV should be used preferentially for the VFC population, particularly for children aged 24 to 59 months and those needing 2 doses.”
“Quasisingle crystalline and polycrystalline Co/Pt multilayered films were prepared via sputtering technique. The polycrystalline Co/Pt multilayers exhibited an appreciable number of planar defects such as twin boundaries and stacking faults whereas few defects were present for the quasisingle crystalline films.

46)Mn(0 77)PS(3) compounds (C) 2009 American Institute of Physic

46)Mn(0.77)PS(3) compounds. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3148271]“
“Background: Historically, alkylator-based therapy has been used to treat patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). More effective therapies, such as the use of

monoclonal antibodies in combination with chemotherapy, have been shown to prolong both progression-free survival and overall survival. Improvements in the identification of prognostic markers for CLL, as well as novel combinations for chemoimmunotherapy regimens, have improved the outcome for patients with CLL.

Methods: We examine GDC-0973 chemical structure the diagnosis of CLL, the role of prognostic factors in determining treatment goals, and current data on front-line management of CLL.

Results: The benefits of single-agent and Microbiology inhibitor combination therapies are associated with prolonged progression-free and overall survival. While more aggressive management may therefore be warranted, each patient’s comorbidities and performance status must be weighed against the benefits, availability, cost, treatment goals, and incidence of adverse effects associated with each therapy.

Conclusions: New single agents and novel treatment combinations have shown promising results in phase I/II studies. The ultimate therapeutic goals of prolonged survival and improved

quality of life will be validated only by ongoing clinical and laboratory research and by continuous enrollment of patients in clinical click here trials.”
“Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening improves the chances of achieving a viable pregnancy, not only free of undesired

single-gene defects but also aneuploidy. In addition, improvements in vitrification provide an efficient means of preserving embryos (blastocysts). By combining trophectoderm biopsy with recent improvements in vitrification methods, only those embryos that have proved themselves viable and potentially more competent are tested. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to assess all 24 chromosomes, aneuploidy rates were compared between day-3 blastomere biopsy and day-5 trophectoderm biopsy. Of those 1603 embryos, 31% were euploid, 62% were aneuploid and 7% not analysable. A significantly larger proportion of embryos were euploid on day-5 biopsy (42%) compared with day-3 biopsy (24%, P < 0.0001). The number of euploid embryos per patient was not significantly different. Combining extended culture, trophectoderm biopsy and aneuploidy assessment by aCGH and subsequent vitrification can provide a more efficient means of achieving euploid pregnancies in IVF. (C) 2014, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

“Although a number of models have been developed to descri

“Although a number of models have been developed to describe the contact between nominally smooth surfaces, very few of these models have been validated with experiment. Therefore, in this study, an asperity-scale experimental contact measurement

was conducted and compared to the predictions of two contact models. The experimental component of this study involved a flat diamond punch tip on a nanoindenter, which was used ACY-738 mw to compress a thin film that was lithographically patterned into isolated raised squares. This experimental method was developed in order to measure the predominantly elastic load response of the surface asperities on one of the isolated raised topography islands. The experimental measurements were compared to the predicted load responses of an existing analytical contact model as well as a finite element contact model that incorporated the topography of the raised island into its formulation. The predictions of both the models were shown to have reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The modeling results were also used to provide greater depth of insight into the physics of the flat punch compression. (C) 2009 American Institute

of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3143893]“
“Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and ALK(+) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) have become highly curable due to the success of modern regimens of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, up to one-third of the patients experience relapse or do not respond to first-line therapy, and half of them relapse again after secondary therapy with limited selleck options for further treatment. In the last 15 years, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to surface receptors became a new and valuable therapeutic option in many hematologic malignancies. Due to its restricted expression on normal activated lymphocytes and its high expression on malignant cells, CD30 represents an attractive

target molecule for HL and ALCL therapy. However, unconjugated CD30 mAbs have demonstrated Salubrinal inhibitor a lack of objective clinical responses in patients with recurrent HL. CD30 exhibits complex signaling pathways, and binding of its natural ligand or anti-CD30 mAbs can induce apoptosis but may also promote proliferation and activation depending on the cellular context. Moreover, CD30 rapidly internalizes after crosslinking, which counteracts efficient recruitment of immunologic effectors but also provides the opportunity to transfer cytotoxic payloads coupled to CD30-specific mAbs into the tumor cells. Several tumor targeting approaches have been studied, including radio-immunoconjugates, immunotoxins, immunoRNases, immunokinases, and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). In 2011, the ADC brentuximab-vedotin, consisting of the CD30-specific chimeric mAb cAC10 and the potent tubulin toxin monomethyl auristatin E, gained regulatory approval as a well tolerated and highly active drug in patients with refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL.

We identified studies using computerized literature searches thro

We identified studies using computerized literature searches through

July 2009. Main outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality and early coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Analyses were stratified by procedure indication (primary PCI and nonprimary PCI). Pooled estimates were obtained using random-effects models. We identified 9 primary PCI studies (106,089 patients) and 7 nonprimary studies (910,422 patients) comparing centres with and without on-site cardiac surgery. For primary PCI, centres without on-site surgery had no significantly increased risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.05) or early CABG (OR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.68-1.11) compared with centres with on-site surgery. For nonprimary PCI, no increased risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.64-1.66) and early CABG (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 0.65-2.95) was observed in centres without backup. However, significant heterogeneity existed in estimates of nonprimary PCI studies, suggesting substantial variation in outcomes of nonprimary PCI across centres without on-site cardiac surgery. We demonstrated that

rates of in-hospital mortality and early CABG were similar at PCI centres with and without on-site cardiac surgery backup. However, variations in outcomes suggest that assurance of optimal outcomes at each PCI centre without on-site surgery is needed.”
“Overweight is associated with alterations in lipid concentrations and an activation of inflammatory markers and both of these metabolic abnormalities

are characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies see more before the onset of clinically evident disease. Reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide anions, evoke endothelial cell activation through many pathways. Markers of lipid peroxidation, including malondialdehyde and 8-epiprostaglandin-F2 alpha, is increased in the plasma of women with preeclampsia, and the low concentrations of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants in the plasma and the placenta further suggest a state of oxidative stress. This review focuses in the relation between maternal obesity, oxidative stress with development MLN4924 nmr of preeclampsia.”
“OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of hypertension on large artery elasticity and the microstructure of the ascending aortic media in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and the association between arterial compliance and composition of the ascending aorta.

METHODS: 60 patients with CAD who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery were divided into two groups: 30 patients in a hypertension group and 30 patients in a non-hypertension group. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was measured by an automatic device (Complior, Artech, France). The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed after selective coronary angiography using the Gensini score system.

There were no recurrences over a period of 12 months after surger

There were no recurrences over a period of 12 months after surgery without chemotherapy. This is the second case of a primary malignant melanoma of the male urethra in Korea.”
“Vigabatrin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) aminotransferase-inhibiting drug used for seizure control, has been associated with white matter vacuolation and intramyelinic edema in animal studies. Similar pathological lesions have never been described in the central nervous system of human participants treated with the drug. Described here is a child with quadriparetic cerebral palsy secondary to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury following premature

birth, who received vigabatrin for the treatment of infantile spasms at 9 months of age. A severe deterioration of neurologic function immediately followed the initiation of vigabatrin, and Navitoclax the child died 3 weeks later. Neuropathological examination revealed white

matter vacuolation and intramyelinic edema. This represents the first reported case of vigabatrin-induced intramyelinic edema in humans. It validates the concerns regarding vigabatrin safety in infants and individuals With preexisting abnormalities of myelin.”
“Background: The study was performed to examine the hypothesis that functional outcomes following major lower-extremity trauma sustained in the military would be similar between patients treated with amputation and those who underwent limb salvage.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 324 service members deployed to Afghanistan Fosbretabulin solubility dmso Casein Kinase inhibitor or Iraq who sustained a lower-limb injury requiring either amputation or limb salvage involving revascularization, bone graft/bone transport, local/free flap coverage, repair of a major nerve injury, or a complete compartment injury/compartment syndrome. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire was used to measure overall function. Standard instruments were used to measure depression (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-military version), chronic

pain (Chronic Pain Grade Scale), and engagement in sports and leisure activities (Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire). The outcomes of amputation and salvage were compared by using regression analysis with adjustment for age, time until the interview, military rank, upper-limb and bilateral injuries, social support, and intensity of combat experiences.

Results: Overall response rates were modest (59.2%) and significantly different between those who underwent amputation (64.5%) and those treated with limb salvage (55.4%) (p = 0.02). In all SMFA domains except arm/hand function, the patients scored significantly worse than population norms. Also, 38.3% screened positive for depressive symptoms and 17.9%, for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One-third (34.0%) were not working, on active duty, or in school.