1 1 7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3 1 1 8) The enzymati

1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC The enzymatic functions of both enzymes include hydrolysis of acetylcholine ACh8(Lane and He, 2013). At the nerve synapses, AChE

terminates nerve impulse transmission by hydrolyzing this neurotransmitter. On the other hand, BChE acts as a backup for AChE and as a scavenger for poisons that might inhibit AChE activity (Masson and Lockridge, 2010). These enzymes have been very rapidly distinguished and subject of considerable research (Massoulié and Millard, 2009). AChE and BChE are well-known for their multiple Sirolimus molecular forms (Chen et al., 2011). Polymorphism is achieved by certain combinations of alternative gene splicing, and AZD5363 by the attachment of non-catalytic structural subunits. In mammals, AChE is encoded by a single gene. However, alternative splicing at the C-terminus of AChE mRNA generates three different isoforms. Conversely, one BChE transcript has been identified so far (Johnson and Moore, 2012). The presence of ChEs in tissues that are not cholinergically innervated provides the most compelling evidence that both AChE and BChE might have functions, other than the termination of cholinergic neurotransmission (Jaganathan and Boopathy, 2000).In fact, the human placenta contains an active cholinergic

system which was associated to the amino acid uptake, the release of human placental chorionic somatotropin and prostaglandin production (González-García et

al., 2008) and to the modulation of nitric oxide effect (Bhuiyan et al., 2006). The concentrations of AChE and BChE are considerably lower in the placenta than in the nervous system (Sastry, 1997). The analysis by electron microscopy of cross sections from term placenta, cytochemically pheromone stained for ChEs activities, showed thatterm placenta syncytiotrophoblast cells produce primarily AChE. On the other hand,epithelial cells that surround the inner part of blood vessels, as well as hematopoietic cells present in them, all intensely stained for both AChE and BChE activities (Sternfeld et al., 1997). In accordance with these observations, it was reported that both AChE and BChE activities were detectable in cultured explanted villous of term placenta (Hahn et al., 1993). Depending on the experimental conditions used, dissimilar OP effects on placental AChE activity have been reported. Gestational exposure of rats to oral doses of the OP chlorpyrifos cause no inhibition of AChE activity (Lassiter et al., 1999), while a single cutaneous dose of OP in pregnant rats decreased AChE activity (Abu-Qare et al., 2000). Nevertheless, we previously reported increased ChE activity in human placenta associated to OP environmental exposure (Souza et al., 2005). Considering that AChE up regulation was induced post OP-treatment in rodents brain (Evron et al.

The number of PCNA-positive cells was significantly lower in pacl

The number of PCNA-positive cells was significantly lower in paclitaxel-treated SKOV3ip1 tumors than in control mice (64.4 ± 17.3 vs 108.4 ± 24.7, P < .01), whereas no significant reduction was observed in response to rhLK8 treatment (74.0 ± 17.6 vs 108.4 ± 24.7, P > .05). The most significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells was observed

in SKOV3ip1 tumors treated with the combination of paclitaxel and rhLK8 (41.0 ± 12.8 vs 108.4 ± 24.7, P < .01; NVP-LDE225 ic50 Table 2 and Figure 1A). In HeyA8 tumors, treatment with paclitaxel or rhLK8 alone did not significantly decrease the number of PCNA-positive cells (88.6 ± 16.9 vs 98.4 ± 16.1, P > .05 and 76.1 ± 20.0 vs 98.4 ± 16.1, P > .05, respectively); however, combination treatment significantly reduced the number of PCNA-positive cells (55.9

± 14.2 vs 98.4 ± 16.1, P < .01; Table 2 and Figure 1B). No significant differences in MVD were detected between control and paclitaxel-treated selleck chemicals SKOV3ip1 tumors (84.0 ± 27.5 vs 73.1 ± 20.4, P > .05); however, treatment with rhLK8 alone and, in particular, the combination of rhLK8 and paclitaxel significantly decreased MVD in SKOV3ip1 tumors as compared with the controls (44.0 ± 9.7 vs 84.0 ± 27.5, P < .01 and 29.4 ± 5.7 vs 84.0 ± 27.5, P < 0.01, respectively; Table 2 and Figure 2A). In HeyA8 tumors, MVD was significantly reduced by treatment with paclitaxel compared with the control group (40.0 ± 15.7 vs 57.1 ± 18.5, P < .05) and to a greater extent with rhLK8 alone (27.0 ± Olopatadine 6.1 vs 57.1 ± 18.5, P < .01) or the combination of paclitaxel and rhLK8 (14.3 ± 5.0 vs 57.1 ± 18.5, P < .001; Table 2 and Figure 2B). Immunofluorescence double staining of CD31 (red) and TUNEL (green) was performed to evaluate apoptosis of tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in response to the different treatments. Apoptosis of endothelial cells is indicated by co-localization, detected by a yellow signal. In SKOV3ip1 tumors (Table 2 and Figure 3A), few tumor cells or tumor-associated endothelial cells were apoptotic in the control group.

Paclitaxel treatment significantly induced apoptosis in tumor-associated endothelial cells compared with the control group (4.0 ± 2.1 vs 0.6 ± 1.0, P < .05). A more significant increase in apoptosis was induced by rhLK8 alone (11.7 ± 4.0 vs 0.6 ± 1.0; P < .01), and the combination of the two drugs enhanced this effect (31.3 ± 9.4 vs 0.6 ± 1.0, P < .001). A similar trend was observed in HeyA8 tumors ( Table 2 and Figure 3B), in which paclitaxel significantly induced apoptosis compared to the control group (2.7 ± 1.6 vs 0.2 ± 0.4, P < .05), and the effect was enhanced by rhLK8 (7.3 ± 3.4 vs 0.2 ± 0.4, P < .01) or the combination of the two drugs (26.4 ± 10.2 vs 0.2 ± 0.4, P < .001). In the SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8 tumor models, apoptosis of tumor cells was induced only in the paclitaxel treatment group and not in the rhLK8 treatment group, whereas the combination of paclitaxel and rhLK8 intensified the apoptosis of tumor cells ( Figure 3).

) throughout the coast was also obtained [15], and the proportion

) throughout the coast was also obtained [15], and the proportion of their revenue that comes from selling canned fish was estimated. These estimates were pooled to obtain the total number of people employed per ton of seafood in the local markets. Peruvians, and foreign markets were considered end consumers in the study, and these did therefore not include employment or cost of operation. Similarly, rural farmers, other sectors,

and the national food security program, El Programa Nacional de Asistencia Alimentaria (Pronaa), were also considered end consumers, and there is therefore no account of the derived benefits from the use of selleck chemical fish products from these groups, including of the employment they provide. Cost structures were reconstructed

from structured interviews of key stakeholders involved with each step of the value chain. Some cost structures for the industrial anchoveta fleet were updated and developed based on estimates in De la Puente et al. [18] and calculations for the artisanal fleet were updated based on estimates in Estrella et al. [10], Alfaro-Shigueto et al. [11]; Estrella and Swartzman [19]. The majority of the cost estimates, however, came from interviews and fieldwork that were undertaken as part of the present study. Included import taxes for materials (e.g., tin cans) were not considered, nor were value added taxes in the costs. This is to some extent countered by not considering the export subsidies that enterprises may get to compensate for the import taxes they have paid. The contribution of the fisheries sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Peru was estimated based Birinapant on the income approach [20] by evaluating the following sum for each enterprise type in the fisheries sector as well as for each seafood commodity, equation(1) GDP=Ce+Ip+Ct+Co–IsGDP=Ce+Ip+Ct+Co–Iswhere Ce is the total cost of compensations, Ip is the gross operating profit, Ct is total taxes, Co cost for management, royalties, certification, and monitoring, and Is

is the income from subsidies. The value chain module used here is coupled with the Ecopath and Ecosim (EwE) modeling framework, but does not rely on the EwE Tau-protein kinase models for parameterization [9] apart from obtaining the landings and fleet structure from the underlying Ecopath model (and these could in principle be entered independently of the Ecopath model). All other information that was needed to develop the value chain analysis as presented in this contribution was thus derived independently of the underlying ecosystem model. The coupling with the EwE models, however, enables evaluation of the full value chain analysis as part of mass-balance modeling [21], time-dynamic simulations [22], policy optimizations [7], spatial optimizations [23], management strategy evaluations, and other analysis where social and economic factors are considered.

The CT scanner table height was set to the center of the greater

The CT scanner table height was set to the center of the greater trochanter. Patient data were evaluated with QCT-Pro software v4.1.3 with the QCT-Pro Bone Investigational Toolkit v2.0 (BIT) (Mindways Software,Austin,USA)

and also with Real Intage Lumacaftor mw visualization software (KGT,Tokyo,Japan) based on 3D DICOM data to provide fusion functions and several geometrical measurements. All measurements were analyzed by a radiologist (M. Ito) blinded to treatment group assignment. The exact 3D rotation of the femur and the threshold setting for defining the bone contours appeared to be the two most critical steps for achieving accuracy and reproducibility in the automated procedures performed by QCT-Pro. The outer cortical BMD thresholds had to be adapted individually for each scan. The femoral neck axis was identified visually and also automatically with the “Optimize FN Axis” algorithm. QCT-Pro

BIT processing was then performed with a fixed bone threshold for cortical separation set to 350 mg/cm3 for all patients and visits. This application was used to measure hip axis length (HAL), femoral neck angle (FNA), and neck width. vBMD, cross-sectional area (CSA), and cross-sectional bone mass of the femoral neck (total, cortical, and trabecular region), as well as cortical thickness and cortical perimeter were also measured. Trabecular parameters in each subject were calculated based on the total and cortical parameters. Biomechanical properties were also derived from the cross-sectional parameters of the femoral neck. This comprehensive image data visualization software based on 3D DICOM data selleck screening library provides fusion functions and several geometrical measurements. For bone analysis of the femoral shaft, this software was used for fusion of 3D images from baseline and images at 144 weeks to define the same regions of interest. The software was then used to measure the

outer perimeter, inner perimeter, bone area, cortical bone density, and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) of the femoral shaft. The cross-sectional femoral neck data were derived on the basis of the geometrical axis to calculate volumetric total BMD (total vBMD; mg/cm3), cortical Protirelin BMD (cortical vBMD; mg/cm3), trabecular BMD (trabecular vBMD; mg/cm3), total CSA (cm2), cortical CSA (cm2), trabecular CSA (cm2), total bone mass (g), cortical bone mass (g), and trabecular bone mass (g). Cortical thickness (mm) and cortical perimeter (mm) were also derived. These parameters were all calculated with QCT-Pro. Because biomechanical parameters were determined on the principal axis, the cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; mm4), the section modulus (SM; mm3), and buckling ratio (BR) were calculated from bone density and geometrical data. The CSMI is defined by the integration of products of incremental cross-sectional area and the square of their distance from the center of mass (centroid).

, 2011) However, to the best of our knowledge, no immunological

, 2011). However, to the best of our knowledge, no immunological analyses of the uranium-exposed population have been conducted. Finally, long-term exposure to DU led to significant changes in the level of cytokines released by stimulated splenic cells in the mice. In general, when the DU dose in feed was

higher than 30 mg/kg, the chronic exposure decreased the expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN- γ, TNF-α) and increased the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) with a shift of Th1 cytokines to Th2 cytokines. To the best of our knowledge (Mosmann and Coffman, 1989 and Abbas et al., 1996), Th1 cells mediate the immune response related to cytotoxicity and local inflammation and are involved in the formation of cellular immunity and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Trametinib Th1 cells also activate Nutlin-3a order iNOS in macrophages to promote their secretion of NO, thereby yielding the above-described results, including decreased proliferative ability of T cells, decreased

responsiveness of DTH, and macrophage dysfunction—which are adequately explained by the inhibition of Th1 cytokines. The main function of Th2 cells is to stimulate B cells to proliferate and, subsequently, to generate antibodies, the production of which is associated with humoral immunity. Th2 cells may assist the mouse B cells to synthesise IgA, IgG, and IgE and may negatively regulate cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and

NK cells. Therefore, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines offers a good explanation for the increase in the total serum IgG and IgE levels, as well as the weakened cytotoxic effect of the NK cells. Similar to the results of this Tangeritin study, numerous studies (Heo et al., 1997, Dietert and Piepenbrink, 2006 and Gao et al., 2007) have demonstrated that exposure to low doses of lead causes a significant shift of Th1 cytokines to Th2 cytokines. However, chronic ingestion of DU by drinking water (40 mg/l), did not lead to modifications in the cytokine gene expression in Peyer’s patches (Dublineau et al., 2006). The differences may be due to the different exposure routes and evaluation tissue. In addition, before determination of cytokine, splenic cells were stimulated with ConA or PMA and ionomycin, which would increase the differences between groups. The limitation of the present study is that only one time point was evaluated; thus, the results do not reflect the dynamic changes in immune function based on the age of the animal and the exposure time to DU. In summary, after 4 months of exposure to low doses of DU (lower than 30 mg/kg) through the diet in young mice, the impact of DU exposure on the immune function of the body was relatively small.

Thus, the HAH5 proteins purified by IC (HAH5IC) or directly from

Thus, the HAH5 proteins purified by IC (HAH5IC) or directly from the culture supernatant of transformed CHO cells (HAH5sC) were used to coat ELISA plates in order to evaluate its capacity to bind antibodies induced by the HACD protein purified by IC (HACD IC) or by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) (Fig. 7). For the positive control, wells coated with HACD purified by SEC (HACD SEC) and the sera of chickens immunized with the same protein were used. In the negative control, measures were carried out coating with the protein HACD SEC and using the sera of chickens immunized with PBS. The ELISA assay coated with the protein HAH5IC showed OD values of 0.61 when the

sera of chickens immunized with HACD IC were tested (Fig. 7A), indicating the existence of anti-HAH5 antibodies. The proteins HAH5sC and the one obtained in the supernatant of SiHa cells transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector (HAH5sS) were buy Tofacitinib also

able to bind antibodies from the chicken sera used in the previous experiment showing OD values of 0.67 and 0.63, respectively (Fig. 7B). More interestingly, the ELISA assay performed with the protein HAH5IC detected anti-HAH5 antibodies in the sera of chicken immunized with the protein HACD SEC, showing an OD value of 0.69 (Fig. 7C). In all cases, positive and negative controls showed OD values around 0.95 and 0.09, respectively. After the emergence of the HPAIV H5N1, selleck chemical poultry and human health have been compromised. Also, it has caused a serious economic trouble owing to the obstruction of poultry trade industry worldwide [15]. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) have made huge efforts to organize accurate strategies for circumventing or diminishing the damages caused by the H5N1 virus. Among

them, a vaccination program together with biosafety measures which include surveillance, quarantine and sanitation are crucial [16], [17] and [18]. Establishing analytical methods for differentiating infected from vaccinated animal (DIVA) Phospholipase D1 and surveillance require a strong platform for protein production, which need a robust and reliable expression system able to produce large amount of protein. In this study, an expression system based on the stable transduction of CHO cells with a recombinant lentiviral vector carrying a synthetic gene with the coding sequence of the HA protein from the HPAIV H5N1 was assessed. The generation of genes by chemical synthesis allows the obtaining of the desired genes in a short period of time, avoids manipulation of strains from HPAIV, the codon usage could be rearranged according to the expression system and allows the addition or removal of regulatory sequences that modulate the expression of the gene of interest. The molecule HA derived from the HPAIV H5N1 A/Viet-Nam/1203/2004 was selected for being lethal to chickens, ducks, ferrets and humans [19] and [20].

Przy przyjęciu do kliniki stan ogólny

dziecka oceniono ja

Przy przyjęciu do kliniki stan ogólny

dziecka oceniono jako dobry, w badaniu przedmiotowym nie stwierdzono istotnych odchyleń od stanu prawidłowego. Badanie mikrobiologiczne kału w kierunku Clostridium difficile potwierdziło obecność toksyny A i B w kale dziecka. Do leczenia włączono wankomycynę w dawce 40 mg/kg masy ciała/dobę przez okres 7 dni. W wyniku zastosowanego leczenia uzyskano poprawę w zakresie konsystencji stolców, nie obserwowano patologicznych domieszek. Dziecko w stanie ogólnym dobrym wypisano do domu, nie obserwowano nawrotu choroby. Etiopatogeneza biegunki związanej z antybiotykoterapią jest złożona i nie w pełni poznana. Istotny wpływ na wystąpienie biegunki ma zmiana składu ekosystemu mikrobiontów przewodu pokarmowego. this website Mniej istotne znaczenie w etiopatogenezie mają zaburzenia motoryki jelit, zespół złego wchłaniania wynikający z uszkodzenia błony śluzowej, zaburzenia trawienia węglowodanów oraz nieprawidłowa degradacja wolnych kwasów żółciowych. Pod wpływem antybiotykoterapii równowaga mikrobiotyczna zostaje zaburzona, miejsce korzystnych szczepów bakteryjnych Lactobacillus i Bifidobacterium zajmują drobnoustroje patogenne, na przykład Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Candida spp., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile [2] and [3]. Istnieją czynniki

predysponujące do wystąpienia biegunki związanej z antybiotykoterapią, takie jak długotrwała antybiotykoterapia, learn more szczególnie z zastosowaniem antybiotyków o szerokim spektrum działania oraz gorzej wchłaniających się w jelitach, występowanie chorób ogólnoustrojowych o ciężkim przebiegu, zaburzeń odporności, hospitalizacja, przebycie biegunki po zastosowaniu antybiotyku w przeszłości oraz podeszły lub młody

wiek (poniżej 6. roku życia, powyżej 65. roku życia) [1]. Szacuje się, że częstość występowania biegunki związanej z antybiotykoterapią w populacji dziecięcej wynosi 11–40%, częściej dotyczy dzieci poniżej 2. roku życia [4], [5] and [6]. Zastosowanie Baf-A1 nmr niektórych antybiotyków częściej prowadzić może do biegunki. Wykazano, że najczęściej dochodzi do niej w wyniku stosowania aminopenicylin, zwłaszcza w połączeniu z kwasem klawulanowym, niektórych cefalosporyn i klindamycyny [5] and [6]. Potencjalnie małe ryzyko wystąpienia biegunki wynikającej z antybiotykoterapii jest związane z podawaniem: makrolidów, aminoglikozydów, wankomycyny, metronidazolu, tetracyklin [7]. Droga podania antybiotyku doustna czy parenteralna, a także wielkość dawki nie mają wpływu na występowanie biegunki związanej ze stosowaniem antybiotyku. Do rozwoju biegunki może dojść już w kilka godzin od rozpoczęcia antybiotykoterapii, ale także po kilku tygodniach od momentu rozpoczęcia leczenia przeciwbakteryjnego (do 6 tygodni). U przedstawionych przez nas pacjentów II i IV biegunka pojawiła się po kilku dniach stosowania antybiotykoterapii.

Trade wind effects on vegetation are well documented For example

Trade wind effects on vegetation are well documented. For example, they generate distinct microclimates on leeward and adjacent winward sides Selleck Talazoparib of mountains (Smith and Young, 1987), resulting in longitudinal rainshadow gradients along which the altitudinal limits of vegetation belts vary (e.g. Sklenář and Laegaard, 2003). Low precipitation levels combined with (1) the absence of water input provided by durable snowbeds and (2) well-documented water

stress due to reduction in soil depth and organic matter content at high elevation (Pérez, 1987b, Körner, 2003 and Anthelme et al., 2012) make tropical mountains more arid than their extratropical counterparts (Leuschner, 2000). This is illustrated by the occurrence of ‘alpine deserts’ on the leeward slopes of high isolated

mountains such as Mount Kilimanjaro in East Africa (Crawford, 2008), Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador (Sklenář and Laegaard, 2003), Cordillera de Merida in Venezuela (Monasterio, click here 1979 and Pérez, 1987a), Mount Cameroon (Letouzey, 1985), volcano Maui in Hawaii (e.g. Pérez, 2003), or in large plateaux bordered to the East by high mountain ranges, such as the Bolivian altiplano (Herzog, 1923). The relative aridity observed in TAE is likely responsible for the common occurrence of (1) scleromorphic plant types such as giant cushions, giant rosettes, and microphyllous shrubs (Ramsay and Oxley, 1997 and Leuschner, 2000) and (2) natural and man-induced fire episodes which constitute severe constraints for plant development (Smith and Young, 1987 and Luteyn, 1999). Altitudinal variation is a powerful proxy of the main drivers of the spatiotemporal dynamics of alpine ecosystems (Körner, 2007 and Nagy and Grabherr, 2009). Because of a lower latitudinal position, TAE occur at a much higher altitude than other alpine ecosystems, especially close to the equator (Körner, 2003). Consequently, TAE are exposed to lower partial pressures of atmospheric gases than most extratropical alpine systems, among which low levels of atmospheric CO2 can have a substantial effect on plant growth and biomass (Körner, 2003 and Körner, 2007). For the

same reasons, ultraviolet (UV) radiations are much stronger in TAE (Körner, 2007) and represent a supplementary physical stress for plants (Caldwell and Robberecht, Carnitine dehydrogenase 1980). It is interesting to note that some subtropical, subarctic, and subantarctic isolated islands, as well as New Zealand, share several ecological features with TAE – including similar growth forms such as giant rosettes, giant cushions, and tussock grasses (Halloy and Mark, 1996, Leuschner, 1996, Mark et al., 2000, Bannister et al., 2005 and le Roux and McGeoch, 2010). As these regions do not share necessarily the specific TAE abiotic features of inverted rainfall gradients and high altitude, it seems that the reason for such similarity in vegetation may rely on the strong oceanic influence on the local climate which buffers seasonality (Leuschner, 1996).

, 2005) These structures were spared in the subject who responde

, 2005). These structures were spared in the subject who responded well. The subject who responded to rTMS of the right pars triangularis also showed increased fMRI activity in left supplementary motor area (SMA) during a naming task 16 months after receiving rTMS compared to his earlier neuroimaging studies. This change in activation was not seen in the patient who responded poorly to stimulation. These data suggest that differences in lesion anatomy may strongly modulate the functional and behavioral consequences of

intervention with TGF-beta inhibitor rTMS. Not all investigations using TMS in chronic aphasia have solely targeted the right hemisphere.

Hypothesizing that inhibitory interhemispheric connections may have deleterious effects on recovering language networks in either hemisphere, Kakuda, Abo, Kaito, Watanabe, and Senoo (2010) recently applied 1 Hz rTMS (20 min; 10 sessions over 6 days) to sites that were contralateral to those found to be most ICG-001 supplier activated by fMRI during a repetition task. Stimulating the right frontal lobe in two patients and the left frontal lobe in two others, they observed modest benefits in measures of spontaneous speech, repetition, writing, and naming that lasted at least 4 weeks (Kakuda, Abo, Kaito, et al., 2010). In another recent study, Kakuda, Abo, Uruma, Kaito, and Watanabe (2010) found that 1 Hz TMS (20 min; 10 sessions over 6 days followed by weekly sessions for 3 months) administered to Wernicke’s area in the left hemisphere resulted in improvement on a Token Test and several subtests of the Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA; a Japanese language instrument) in two patients with chronic Methocarbamol fluent aphasia (Kakuda, Abo, Uruma, et

al., 2010). Unfortunately, both studies reported by Kakuda and colleagues were limited in that neither demonstrated that the gains in performance made by subjects were statistically significant and neither employed a control condition to ensure that patients’ behavioral changes were specifically attributable to TMS. Data from tDCS studies are limited but encouraging (See Table 2). Monti and colleagues (2008) explored the immediate effects tDCS in patients with chronic aphasia by applying anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation (2 mA, 10 min) over the left frontotemporal cortex of eight aphasic patients who had suffered ischemic strokes. In their first experiment, four subjects underwent a single session of cathodal tDCS and a single sham tDCS session separated by at least one week; the four other subjects underwent anodal tDCS and sham sessions.

319 in eutrophic polar waters (E5) in winter Finally, the smalle

319 in eutrophic polar waters (E5) in winter. Finally, the smallest range of variation, just ca 1.3 times, is characteristic of the radiationless nonphotochemical conversion selleck screening library of pigment excitation energy into heat. Quantum yields

of heat production <ΦHze><ΦH>ze (see Figure 6c, and the data in Annex A3) vary from ca 0.678, a value typical of eutrophic waters (E5), to ca 0.887 in oligotrophic tropical waters (O1) and (O2) in summer. It is also worth having a look at the dependence of the separate aspects of the pigment excitation energy budget on (1) the surface chlorophyll a concentration Ca(0), i.e. the trophic index of the water; (2) climatic zone and season. These relationships can be briefly summarized as follows: • The trophic index is the factor most strongly differentiating the aspects of the overall energy budget recorded in nature. All the plots in Figure 6 show that this factor far outweighs any influence due to seasonal or climatic variation. This effect of the

trophic index is of course different with respect to the various aspects of this budget. Trophic differences alter the amount of pigment excitation energy expended in the euphotic zone on chlorophyll a   fluorescence by nearly two orders of magnitude, on photosynthesis by about one order and on heat production by a factor of ca 1.2. The Selleck PD-166866 nature of the dependence of these aspects of the budget on surface chlorophyll a   concentration Ca  (0) is also different. The quantum yield of photosynthesis <Φphze><Φph>ze (see Figures 6b)

rises with increasing Ca  (0) across almost the whole range of variability. Only in supereutrophic basins E6 is there a slight drop in this quantum yield, which is undoubtedly due to the very much smaller thickness of well illuminated water in the euphotic ID-8 zone in which photosynthesis takes place. The quantum yields of chlorophyll fluorescence <Φflze><Φfl>ze and heat production <ΦHze><ΦH>ze display opposite tendencies, however: <Φflze><Φfl>ze decreases exponentially with the increase in Ca  (0) over the entire range of this trophic index (see Figure 6a), and likewise, the yield of heat production <ΦHze><ΦH>ze decreases with rising Ca  (0) over a wide range of trophic types (see Figures 6c). The only slight divergences from this regularity occur in ultra-oligotrophic basins (O1 and O2) and in supereutrophic ones (E5 and E6), where <ΦHze><ΦH>ze shows a slight tendency to increase with rising Ca(0). Previously derived by the authors and modified for the purposes of the present work, the model descriptions of the three principal processes in which the excitation energy of marine phytoplankton pigments is deactivated, that is, the natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a, photosynthesis and heat production, were used to calculate the quantum yields and energy efficiencies of these processes in sea waters of different trophic types, in different seasons and climatic zones, and at different depths in the sea.