13), Co (0 92), Cu (1 70) and Zn (1 02 mu g/g) The concentration

13), Co (0.92), Cu (1.70) and Zn (1.02 mu g/g). The concentration of these elements in the fruits is above the optimum level of recommended dietary intake, probably due to this, disorder in the human health is suspected in the inhabitants of the area.”
“Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the method of choice for the in vitro production (IVP) of equine embryos. However, conventional ICSI has been associated with mechanical damage to the oocyte caused

by the deformation of the zona pellucida (ZP) and exposure of the oolemma to negative pressure during injection. Introduction of the less traumatic and more efficient piezo drill-assisted ICSI (PDAI) yielded higher cleavage rates and more consistent results. Nevertheless, PDAI is also associated with disadvantages such as the use of mercury and possible DNA damage. This led us to explore an alternative method avoiding oocyte trauma, namely laser-assisted ICSI (LAI), which involves creating a hole in the ZP prior to ICSI. In see more this pilot study, PDAI and LAI were compared for ICSI in the horse. No significant influences on subsequent embryonic development were observed.”
“Background: CMR allows investigating

cardiac contraction, rotation and torsion non-invasively by the use of tagging sequences. Three-dimensional tagging has been proposed to cover the whole-heart but data acquisition requires three consecutive breath holds and hence demands considerable patient cooperation. ARS-1620 inhibitor In this study we have implemented and studied k-t undersampled cine 3D tagging in conjunction with k-t PCA reconstruction to potentially permit for single breath-hold acquisitions.

Methods: The performance of undersampled cine 3D tagging was investigated using computer simulations and in-vivo measurements in 8 healthy subjects and 5 patients with myocardial infarction. Fully sampled data was obtained and compared to retrospectively and prospectively undersampled

acquisitions. Fully sampled data was acquired in three consecutive breath holds. Prospectively undersampled data was obtained within a single breath hold. Based on harmonic phase (HARP) analysis, circumferential shortening, rotation and torsion were compared between fully sampled and undersampled data using Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis.

Results: find more In computer simulations, the error for circumferential shortening was 2.8 +/- 2.3% and 2.7 +/- 2.1% for undersampling rates of R = 3 and 4 respectively. Errors in ventricular rotation were 2.5 +/- 1.9% and 3.0 +/- 2.2% for R = 3 and 4. Comparison of results from fully sampled in-vivo data acquired with prospectively undersampled acquisitions showed a mean difference in circumferential shortening of -0.14 +/- 5.18% and 0.71 +/- 6.16% for R = 3 and 4. The mean differences in rotation were 0.44 +/- 1.8 and 0.73 +/- 1.67 for R = 3 and 4, respectively. In patients peak, circumferential shortening was significantly reduced ( p < 0.002 for all patients) in regions with late gadolinium enhancement.

We compare our case to other similar cases in the literature “

We compare our case to other similar cases in the literature.”

can use ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole nitrogen source, but at high NH(4)(+) concentrations in the root medium, particularly in combination with a low availability of K(+), plants suffer from NH(4)(+) toxicity. To understand the role of K(+) transporters and non-selective cation channels in K(+)/NH(4)(+) interactions better, growth, NH(4)(+) and K(+) accumulation and the specific fluxes of NH(4)(+), K(+), and H(+) were examined in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Arabidopsis seedlings. Net fluxes of K(+) and NH(4)(+) were negatively correlated, as were their PF-562271 research buy tissue concentrations, suggesting that there is direct competition during uptake. Pharmacological treatments with the K(+) transport inhibitors tetraethyl ammonium (TEA(+)) and gadolinium (Gd(3+)) reduced NH(4)(+) influx, and the addition of TEA(+) alleviated the NH(4)(+)-induced depression of root growth in germinating Arabidopsis plants. Screening of a barley root cDNA library in a yeast mutant lacking all NH(4)(+) and K(+) uptake proteins through the deletion of MEP1-3 and TRK1 and TRK2 resulted in the cloning of the barley K(+) transporter HvHKT2;1. Further analysis in yeast suggested that HvHKT2;1, AtAKT1, and AtHAK5 transported NH(4)(+), and that K(+) supplied

at increasing concentrations competed with this NH(4)(+) transport. On the other hand, uptake of K(+) by AtHAK5, and to a lesser extent via HvHKT2;1 and AtAKT1, was inhibited by increasing concentrations of NH(4)(+). Together, the results of this study show that plant K(+) transporters www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html and channels are able to transport NH(4)(+). Unregulated NH(4)(+) uptake via these transporters may contribute to NH(4)(+) toxicity at low K(+) levels, and

may explain the alleviation of NH(4)(+) toxicity by K(+).”
“Tranexamic acid (TA) used in a variety of conditions associated with bleeding has been associated with potential thrombotic side effects such as formation of thrombi and pulmonary embolism (PE). We describe a case of a woman with chronic hemoptysis and a history of PE, who recently used TA as a prophylactic measure, which could have resulted in a new episode of PE. Tranexamic acid probably played a contributory role in the development of her second PE.”
“Contrary to the increasing amount of knowledge regarding the functional roles of glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GRPs) NVP-AUY922 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana in stress responses, the physiological functions of GRPs in rice (Oryza sativa) currently remain largely unknown. In this study, the functional roles of six OsGRPs from rice on the growth of E. coil and plants under cold or freezing stress conditions have been evaluated. Among the six OsGRPs investigated, OsGRP1, OsGRP4, and OsGRP6 were shown to have the ability to complement cold-sensitive BX04 E. coil mutant cells under low temperature conditions, and this complementation ability was correlated closely with their DNA- and RNA-melting abilities.

9 respectively; P=0 002) Triploid fertilization

rate (3P

9 respectively; P=0.002). Triploid fertilization

rate (3PN/COC) was significantly higher in the IVF group compared to the ICSI group (3.9 +/- 8.7 % versus 0.9 AC220 +/- 3.1 % respectively; P=0.02). The morphology score and rate of development of day 2 and 3 embryos were not different between the two groups. Comparison of embryo transfer cycles in which either IVF or ICSI only embryos were transferred did not reveal any statistically significant differences in pregnancy or implantation rates.

ICSI appears to be a better treatment option than conventional IVF in endometriosis-associated infertility, since it offers the advantages of higher fertilization rate and mean number of embryos and lower rate of total fertilization failure and triploid fertilization.”
“Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare fungal infection that is more commonly associated with compromised patients. We present herein an 81-year-old man with collagen disease and chronic interstitial pneumonia who developed subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei. The main pathogen of phaeohyphomycosis

had been considered to be E. jeanselmei complex. This has recently been divided into several species by using a molecular Anlotinib cost technique. The main pathogen of phaeohyphomycosis is Exophiala xenobiotica, and E. jeanselmei is rather a rare pathogen of this disease. Although p.o. itraconazole and terbinafine administration was not effective for this patient, these antifungal agents were used for preventing systemic dissemination in this immunocompromised host.”
“The aim of this study was to develop photostable gastro retentive formulation for nifedipine loading into low-density polypropylene microporous particles (Accurel MP 1000 (R)) by a solvent evaporation technique using the 3(2) factorial design. Yield, drug loading, surface topography, thermal properties, crystal characteristics, photostability

and in vitro drug release were studied. Optimized microparticles formulated into a capsule were evaluated for the dissolution study and compared with marketed formulation. Higher values of T-50%, time required see more for 50% degradation of drug with threefold and 1.5-fold decrease in degradation rate constant (K) under UV and fluorescent lamp were observed for the microparticles, respectively, as compared to pure nifedipine indicated remarkable improved photostability. Microparticles showed good floating ability in 0.1N HCl with initial burst release (16-29%) followed by the zero-order drug release up to 8 h. The capsule formulation followed the ideal modified release pattern.”
“Background: To analyze casualties from the Camp Eagle Study, focusing on life-saving interventions (LSI) and potentially survivable deaths.

Methods: Retrospective cohort of battle casualties from a forward base engaged in urban combat in Central Iraq. Medical support included emergency medicine practitioners and combat medics with advanced training and protocols.

Interventions There were no interventions used in the study Out

Interventions. There were no interventions used in the study. Outcome Measures. Pain intensity was measured with a numeric rating scale (NRS); pain characteristics were assessed with the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the ID Pain (able to discriminate nociceptive from neuropathic pain). Quality of life

(QoL) was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Status Survey. A semi-structured questionnaire on pain occurrence, impact, and management was administered by the physiotherapist in charge of the patients and by the physician. Results. We studied 139 patients, 82% of whom complained of at least moderate pain (NRS = 3). According to ID pain, 45.6% patients complained of probable (33.8%) or highly probable (11.8%) neuropathic pain. A higher pain intensity was significantly related to the probability of having neuropathic pain (P < 0.001). Patients with more severe pain reported lower physical Selleckchem EPZ004777 and mental QoL scores. In 38.6% of cases, pain interfered with the rehabilitation process, and in 18.5% it was the cause of physical therapy discontinuation. Conclusions.

In light of the high occurrence and intensity of pain in the sample, and of the significant impact on the rehabilitation program, clinicians should pay more attention to pain, especially neuropathic pain, in postsurgical patients. Tailored pain pharmacological therapy could possibly improve patient compliance during the rehabilitation process and enhance long-term outcomes.”
“AimTo define the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) for the AZD5363 clinical trial multiethnic Fosbretabulin Singaporean population.

MethodsData from

1529 live singleton deliveries was analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis, with GWG as the predictor, was conducted to determine the lowest aggregated risk of a composite perinatal outcome, stratified by Asia-specific body mass index (BMI) categories. The composite perinatal outcome, based on a combination of delivery type (cesarean section [CS], vaginal delivery [VD]) and size for gestational age (small [SGA], appropriate [AGA], large [LGA]), had six categories: (i) VD with LGA; (ii) VD with SGA; (iii) CS with AGA; (iv) CS with SGA; (v) CS with LGA; (vi) and VD with AGA. The last was considered as the normal’ reference category. In each BMI category, the GWG value corresponding to the lowest aggregated risk was defined as the optimal GWG, and the GWG values at which the aggregated risk did not exceed a 5% increase from the lowest aggregated risk were defined as the margins of the optimal GWG range.

ResultsThe optimal GWG by pre-pregnancy BMI category, was 19.5kg (range, 12.9 to 23.9) for underweight, 13.7kg (7.7 to 18.8) for normal weight, 7.9kg (2.6 to 14.0) for overweight and 1.8kg (-5.0 to 7.0) for obese.

The exponent alpha was found to be alpha approximate to 0 55(2)

The exponent alpha was found to be alpha approximate to 0.55(2). The gyrotropic motion is studied by applying an external magnetic field parallel to the plane of the magnetic nanodisk.

Our results show that there is a minimum value for the modulus of the out-of-plane vortex-core magnetization, from which we can excite the gyrotropic mode. This minimum value depends on the thickness of the nanodisk. This result suggest that an experimental way to improve the stability of the process of switching may be through the thickness control. We also observed that the gyrotropic mode frequency increases with the aspect ratio, which is in qualitatively accordance with theoretical and experimental results. Finally, we present theoretical results for Permalloy nanodisks obtained

from our model, which are also in good MAPK inhibitor agreement with experimental results. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3526970]“
“As OSI-906 long as 130 years ago Rissmuller [1] reported substantial retranslocation of iron (Fe) from beech leaves (Fagus sylvatica L.) shortly before leaf fall. This rather limited report on Fe retranslocation via the phloem in plants was the reason for this research to study changes in Fe content in individual beech leaves in more detail during the vegetative period. Besides Fe, other micronutrients and particularly Ca and K, well known to differ substantially in phloem mobility, were analysed selleck compound as mineral nutrient markers. In addition to beech, other deciduous and

evergreen species of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms were also studied.

As expected, there was no evidence of Ca retranslocation from senescent leaves, while K as a phloem mobile mineral nutrient was retranslocated in fall in deciduous but not in evergreen trees. There was no indication to support Rissmuller’s finding of Fe retranslocation in any of the different species studied. From these results, we conclude that natural leaf senescence of trees during late season does not induce retranslocation of Fe and other micronutrients. Possible reasons for the absence of a distinct retranslocation of Fe in the species studied during late season senescence are the lack of a sink activity, as for example the development of seeds in annual plant species (e.g., cereals), or the presence of a root system still active enough to provide Fe and other mineral nutrients for plant demand, and both factors have to be considered in further studies.

Reviewing the data in the literature on Fe and Zn retranslocation during senescence, we conclude that in principle both micronutrients are potentially phloem mobile. However, various prerequisites are needed for the occurrence of phloem mobility which were absent in the plant species studied. Regardless of this conclusion, we recommend that in general early published research data need a critical re-evaluation. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

The correction rate (CR) of postoperation, supine side-bending, s

The correction rate (CR) of postoperation, supine side-bending, suspension, and fulcrum bending radiographs were compared with PTF in instrumented

main thoracic (MT) and thoracolumbar/lumbar curves. Correlation and linear regression analyses were also been done to find the best predictor among the four methods.

Results. In MT group, CR of PTF was significantly higher than that of side bending (P = 0.010) and suspension (P = 0.000) but not significantly different from that of fulcrum bending (P = 0.335). In TL/L group, CR of PTF was significantly higher than that of suspension (P = 0.000), but not significantly different from that of side bending (P = 0.681) and fulcrum bending (P = 0.382). There was no significant difference between CR of PTF and postoperation in both MT (P = 0.122) and TL/L (P = 0.068) groups. Correlation LY2090314 and linear regression analyses showed that PTF provided the highest correlation of the four methods, with the postoperative angle in bothMT (r = 0.957) and MT/L group (r = 0.779).

Conclusion. To our knowledge, this was the first report about using precisely controlled bidirectional correction forces for curve flexibility evaluation. Although it did not achieve the best CR among the four methods studied, correlation and regression analyses confirmed

JQ-EZ-05 research buy that PTF was a more stable and accurate method to predict flexibility. We believe that further exploration of a more rational push-traction force ratio would help to obtain a better flexibility.”
“A new series of sixteen N-4-aryl substituted 5-chloroisatin-3-thiosemicarbazones 2a-2p has been synthesized, characterized and tested for selected biological activities i.e. cytotoxicity, APR-246 phytotoxicity and urease inhibition. In the brine shrimp bioassay, all the synthesized compounds gave LD50 values >2.30 X 10(-4) M – 2.79 X 10(-4) M and were, therefore, found

to be almost inactive, whereas in phytotoxicity assay, regardless of the nature of aryl substituents, they displayed weak to moderate (5-40%) phytotoxic activity at the highest tested concentrations (500 or 1000 mu g/mL). In urease inhibition bioassay, compounds 2a, 2c, 2e, 2f, 2k and 2m exhibited relatively a higher degree of urease inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 38.91 mu M to 76.65 mu M and thus proved to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme. Of these, 2f and 2m displayed pronounced inhibition with IC50 values 38.91 mu M and 39.50 mu M, respectively, and may act as lead compounds for further studies. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that electronic effects of the substituents about the phenyl ring at N-4 of the thiosemicarbazone moiety played an important role in enhancing the urease inhibitory potential of some of the synthesized compounds.”
“Children with epilepsy have a high incidence of psychiatric comorbidities, especially attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Our data suggest that ROR1-immunotoxins such as BT-1 could serve

Our data suggest that ROR1-immunotoxins such as BT-1 could serve as targeted therapeutic agents for

ROR1-expressing B cell malignancies and other cancers.”
“The consumption of health-promoting products such as cold pressed oils may improve human health and prevent certain diseases. Blends (10% and 20%, w/w) of cold pressed oils including black cumin oil (BC), cumin oil (Cum), coriander oil (Cor) and clove oil (Clo) with high linoleic Selleck IWR-1-endo sunflower oil (SF) were formulated. Oxidative stability (OS) and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of SF and blends stored under oxidative conditions (60 degrees C) for 8 days were studied. By increasing the proportion of cold pressed oils in SF, linoleic acid level decreased, while tocols level increased. Progression of oxidation was followed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (Av), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT). Inverse relationships were noted between PV as well as Av and OS at termination of storage. Levels of CD and CT in SF and blends increased with increase in time. Cold pressed oil blends gave about 70% inhibition of DPPH. radicals. Oxidative stabilities of oil blends were better than SF, most likely as a consequence of changes in fatty acids and tocols’

profile, and minor bioactive lipids found in cold pressed oils. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights click here reserved.”
“Treatment of patients with concomitant pelvic arterial hemorrhage and blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is challenging. Controversies remain over the diagnostic approach and the priority of available treatment resources.

Between 1999 and 2008, 545 patients were admitted due to concomitant BAT and pelvic fracture. Seventy-six patients receiving both angiography and laparotomy were studied. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) was used as the primary

triage tool in the early 5 years and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the later 5 years. The clinical courses and results were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the evolution of the clinical pathways for managing these patients resulted in improved AS1842856 concentration outcomes.

Performing laparotomy solely based on FAST during the early 5 years resulted in a high nontherapeutic laparotomy rate (36%). Contrast enhanced MDCT, as the primary triage tool, accurately disclosed active intra-abdominal and pelvic injuries and was helpful in promptly tailoring the subsequent treatment. Additional surgical trauma was avoided in some patients and nontherapeutic laparotomy rate decreased to 16%. Multiple bleeders were found in 70% of positive angiograms; bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for the purpose of damage control showed a lower repeat angioembolization rate for these severely injured patients.

The revised clinical algorithm served well for guiding the treatment pathway.

Although not as deadly as Plasmodium falciparum, P malariae is m

Although not as deadly as Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae is more common than previously thought, and is frequently in sympatry and co-infection with P. falciparum, making its study increasingly important. This study compares learn more the population parameters of the two species in two districts of Malawi with different malaria transmission patterns – one seasonal, one perennial – to explore the effects of transmission on population structures.


Six species-specific microsatellite markers were used to analyse 257 P. malariae samples and 257 P. falciparum samples matched for age, gender and village of residence. Allele sizes were scored to within 2 bp for each locus and haplotypes were constructed from dominant alleles in multiple infections. Analysis of multiplicity of infection (MOI), population differentiation, selleck chemicals llc clustering of haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium was performed for both species. Regression analyses were used to determine association of MOI measurements with clinical malaria parameters.

Results: Multiple-genotype infections within each species were common in both districts, accounting for 86.0% of P. falciparum and 73.2% of

P. malariae infections and did not differ significantly with transmission setting. Mean MOI of P. falciparum was increased under perennial transmission compared with seasonal (3.14 vs 2.59, p = 0.008) and was greater in children compared with adults. In contrast, P. malariae mean MOI was similar between transmission settings (2.12 vs 2.11) and there was no difference between children and adults. Population differentiation LY2835219 research buy showed no significant differences between villages or districts for either species. There was no evidence of geographical clustering of haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium amongst loci was found only for P. falciparum samples from the seasonal transmission setting.

Conclusions: The extent of similarity between P. falciparum and P. malariae population structure

described by the high level of multiple infection, the lack of significant population differentiation or haplotype clustering and lack of linkage disequilibrium is surprising given the differences in the biological features of these species that suggest a reduced potential for out-crossing and transmission in P. malariae. The absence of a rise in P. malariae MOI with increased transmission or a reduction in MOI with age could be explained by differences in the duration of infection or degree of immunity compared to P. falciparum.”
“The distinct characteristics of thixotropic and viscoelastic phenomena of polycarbosilane (PCS) melt were reported first time based on experimental observations. The PCS was synthesized according to the Yajima process with the number of average molecular weight being similar to 1170, followed by an appropriate preshear treatment to remove air bubbles encountered during the heating or pressing process of PCS specimens.

Stimulated by 980 nm infrared laser, the green photostimulated lu

Stimulated by 980 nm infrared laser, the green photostimulated luminescence was first observed in a nondoped oxide. After ultraviolet irradiation, the green persistent luminescence of Mg2SnO4 could be seen in darkness for about 5 h. The decay curves revealed that the long persistent luminescence was governed by tunneling mechanism and it proved the presence of

different trap clusters in Mg2SnO4. These trap clusters (such as [Sn-Mg(center dot center dot)-O-i ''], [Sn-Mg(center dot center dot)-2e'], and [Sn-Mg(center dot center learn more dot)-e '']) induced the trap levels with different depths in band gap and corresponded to the three components (at 110, 168, and 213 degrees C) of the thermoluminescence glow curve of Mg2SnO4. These trap levels with different depths were proved to be not independent. It revealed that the shallow traps (110 degrees C) and part of the deep traps (168 and 213 degrees C) were involved in the persistent luminescence. Meanwhile, all the shallow and deep traps were

responsible for the photostimulated luminescence. Accordingly, the photoluminescence, persistent, and photostimulated luminescence mechanisms of the nondoped Mg2SnO4 material were first proposed. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3524280]“
“Ictal behavior coupled with SPECT findings during 28 seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (13 left; 15 right) was displayed as flowcharts from right-sided (RTLE) plus left-sided (LTLE) seizures. Ictal SPECT was classified CX-4945 ic50 blind to neuroethology. Behaviors were categorized as ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone (IL), contralateral to the epileptogenic zone (CL), or bilateral. SPECT

intensity and region were categorized as IL VX-680 in vivo or CL to the epileptogenic zone. All patients developed automatisms and had hyperperfusion in their temporal lobes. Patients’ verbal responses to questions had statistical interactions in RTLE but not in LTLE sum. Most CL dystonic posturing was correlated to IL basal ganglia hyperperfusion. Basal ganglia activation occurred in seizures without dystonic posturing and CL manual automatisms, and lack of IL dystonic posturing and the presence of CL cerebellar hemispheric hyperperfusion were also observed. Coupling of neuroethology and SPECT findings reliably evaluates ictal behavior and functionality of associated brain areas. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The likelihood of a sustained virological response (SVR) is the most important factor for physicians and patients in the decision to initiate and continue therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. This study identified predictive factors for SVR with peginterferon plus ribavirin (RBV) in patients with CHC treated under ‘real-life’ conditions.

Water-soluble pectin appears to contain unbranched, high-esterifi

Water-soluble pectin appears to contain unbranched, high-esterified pectin and some pectic polymers with abundant side chains that are less esterified. Ionically cross-linked pectin, on the other hand, contains low-esterified pectin with either highly branched or unbranched domains. The Selleck Alvespimycin in situ visualisation of pectin in broccoli suggested that de-esterification of pectin by PME during LTB as well as during HP mainly takes place in the tricellular junctions of adjacent cells in broccoli tissue. Ca(2+)-cross-linked pectin could be found in cell walls lining intercellular

spaces and was particularly abundant at the corners of intercellular spaces, indicating its important role in cell-cell adhesion. Both LTB and HP created pectin-Ca(2+)-cross-links in parts of the cell wall where these cross-links were originally absent. The influence of thermal processing and the effect of pressurisation on the pectic components in the cell wall could also be visualised using the antibodies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We already reported that levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma

have been shown to this website be markedly reduced in mice seven weeks after irradiation, resulting in a T helper (Th) 1/Th2 imbalance. To investigate whether the single or fractionated gamma-irradiation induced an immune imbalance, we analysed the Th1-related immune response profile until six months after the fractionated whole-body irradiation.

Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to gamma-rays https://www.sellecn.cn/products/SNS-032.html at a fractionated 5 Gy cumulative dose for five weeks. At two, four and six months later from the first exposure, experiments were performed. Cell populations in the spleen, the production of IFN-gamma, interleukin (IL)- 4 and IL-12p70, natural killer (NK) cell activity and the expression of IL-12 receptors, signal transducer and activator

of transcription (STAT) 4 and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3 were detected.

Results: The IFN-gamma was lower in the mice exposed by all irradiation conditions than in normal control mice, but the IL-4 had increased in all the irradiated mice. To investigate Th1 profile, NK cell activity, IL-12p70 level and its receptor expression was confirmed. In all fractionated irradiation groups, the NK cell activity as well as the absolute numbers of NK cells was much decreased. Also, all the irradiated mice showed a lower IL-12p70 level. However, the expression of IL-12 receptor beta 2 was lower in the irradiated mice except the 0.2 Gy x 10 mice group. The phosphoylated STAT4 was lower in all the irradiated mice. This suppression was associated with an overexpression of SOCS3.