We describe CNS-relevant in vitro and in vivo studies that have e

We describe CNS-relevant in vitro and in vivo studies that have examined the function of SOCS1 or SOCS3 under various neuroinflammatory or neuropathological conditions, including exposure of CNS cells to inflammatory cytokines or bacterial infection, demyelinating insults, stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and glioblastoma multiforme.”
“Background. Evidence suggests that gait is influenced by higher order cognitive and cortical control mechanisms. However, less is known about the functional correlates of cortical control of gait.

Methods. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, the current study was designed to

evaluate whether increased activations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were detected in walking while talking (WWT) compared with normal pace walking (NW) in 11 young and 11 old participants. Citarinostat Specifically, the following two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Activation in the PFC would be increased in WWT compared AR-13324 cell line with NW. (b) The increase in activation in the PFC during WWT as compared with NW would be greater in young than in old participants.

Results. Separate linear mixed effects models with age as the two-level between-subject factor, walking condition (NW vs WWT) as the two-level repeated within-subject factor, and HbO2 levels in each of the 16 functional

near-infrared spectroscopy channels as the dependent measure revealed significant task effects in 14 channels, indicating a robust bilateral increased activation in the PFC in WWT compared with NW. Furthermore, the group-by-task interaction was significant in 11 channels with young participants showing greater WWT-related increase in HbO2 levels compared with the old participants.

Conclusions. This study provided the first evidence that oxygenation levels are increased in the PFC during WWT compared with Flavopiridol molecular weight NW in young and old individuals. This effect was modified by

age suggesting that older adults may underutilize the PFC in attention-demanding locomotion tasks.”
“The relation of the pelvis to the spine has previously been overlooked as a contributor to sagittal balance. However, it is now recognized that spinopelvic alignment is important to maintain an energy-efficient posture in normal and disease states. The pelvis is characterized by an important anatomic landmark, the pelvic incidence (PI). The PI does not change after adolescence, and it directly influences pelvic alignment, including the parameters of pelvic tilt (PT) and sacral slope (SS) (PI = PT 1 SS), overall sagittal spinal balance, and lumbar lordosis. In the setting of an elevated PI, the spineadapts with increased lumbar lordosis.

There are concerns regarding potential iatrogenic renal failure a

There are concerns regarding potential iatrogenic renal failure arising from these agents. A case, it would appear, of unintended consequences. Our publication of several reports on the previously unrecognized syndrome of late onset renal failure from angiotensin blockade (LORFFAB) in 2008 adds to this evolving literature. At the same time, some

recent reports have questioned the veracity of claims of superior reno-protection with these agents beyond BP lowering. A post hoc analysis of a subset of patients in the MICRO-HOPE cohort suggested that Tariquidar molecular weight a previously unrecognized greater 24-h BP lowering achieved in the ramipril arm vs placebo could explain the reported benefits of the ACEI. These doubts and concerns became heightened by the results

of the ONTARGET study. Our critical re-appraisal of the large RAAS blockade trials revealed design flaws and protocol contradictions that further these doubts and concerns. We conclude that these agents be used more judiciously, with better monitoring of kidney function. Treating physicians must consider drug discontinuation in selected patients. We also support temporary withdrawal of these agents before major surgical procedures, contrast media administration and during acute illness. Such preventative measures (reno-prevention) would enhance the benefits of reno-protection with RAAS blockade.”
“Fas ligand is a well-known inducer of apoptosis in cells expressing its receptor Fas; it also prevents autoimmunity by inducing apoptosis of activated T cells. However, Fas ligand also mediates non-apoptotic Blasticidin S functions involving inflammatory cell migration and cytokine responses. We sought here to study the role of Fas ligand in nephrotoxic nephritis, a model of crescentic glomerulonephritis, using generalized lymphoproliferative disorder (GLD) mice on a C57BL/6 background, which have Org 27569 defective Fas ligand and display only mild autoimmunity.

These mice were significantly protected from glomerular crescent formation, glomerular thrombosis, renal impairment, and albuminuria 15 days after the induction of glomerulonephritis in comparison with wild-type mice. There were a reduced number of apoptotic cells in the glomeruli of nephritic GLD mice but no defect in their antibody responses or splenocyte proliferation at 15 days following the induction of glomerulonephritis. Bone marrow transplantation from wildtype mice restored disease susceptibility to GLD mice; however, wild-type mice were not protected when transplanted with bone marrow from GLD mice. Mesangial cells express Fas ligand in vitro, and these cells isolated from GLD mice produced lower amounts of monocyte chemoattractive protein-1 following interleukin-1 stimulation compared with cells from wild-type mice. Thus, Fas ligand-defective mice are protected from nephrotoxic nephritis, a disease in which both circulating and intrinsic renal cells appear to have a role. Kidney International (2012) 81, 170-178; doi:10.1038/ki.2011.

We suggest that the spatial dimension of social interactions cont

We suggest that the spatial dimension of social interactions contributes to an observer’s understanding of potentially dangerous social situations, and that higher level visual cortices play a role in distinguishing social categories based on a person’s features. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“K-cyclin, encoded by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated Selleckchem Alvespimycin herpesvirus, has previously been demonstrated to activate cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) to induce the phosphorylation of various cell cycle regulators. In this study, we identified Cdk9 as

a new K-cyclin-associated Cdk and showed that K-cyclin interacted with Cdk9 through its basic domain. We hypothesized that K-cyclin served as a regulatory subunit for the activity of Cdk9. Recent reports show that Cdk9 phosphorylates tumor suppressor p53, and we found that the K-cyclin/Cdk9 buy Nirogacestat interaction greatly enhanced the kinase activity

of Cdk9 toward p53. The phosphorylation site(s) of K-cyclin/Cdk9 kinase complexes was mapped in the transactivation domain of p53. We showed that the ectopic expression of K-cyclin led to a sustained increase of p53 phosphorylation on Se-33 in vivo, and the phosphorylation could be inhibited by a dominant negative Cdk9 mutant, dn-Cdk9. Using p53-positive U2OS and p53-null SaOS2 cells, we demonstrated that K-cyclin-induced growth arrest was associated with the presence of p53. In addition, K-cyclin-induced p53-dependent growth arrest was rescued by the dn-Cdk9- or CM-specific short hairpin RNA in SaOS2 cells. Together, our findings for the first time demonstrated the interaction of K-cyclin and Cdk9 and revealed a new molecular link between K-cyclin and p53.”
“We studied the neural activation associated with anticipations of emotional pictures using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by directly comparing certain with

uncertain anticipation conditions. While being scanned with fMRI, healthy participants (n = 18) were cued to anticipate and then perceive MK-0518 emotional stimuli having predictable (i.e., certain) emotional valences (i.e., positive and negative), given a preceding cue, as well as cued stimuli of uncertain valence (positive or negative). During anticipation of pictures with certain negative valence, activities of supracallosal anterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, and amygdala were enhanced relative activity levels that for the uncertain emotional anticipation condition. This result suggests that these brain regions are involved in anticipation of negative images, and that their activity levels may be enhanced by the certainty of anticipation. Furthermore, the supracallosal anterior cingulate cortex showed functional connectivity with the insula, prefrontal cortex, and occipital cortex during the certain negative anticipation.

C L Olsthoorn et al , EMBO J 18: 4856-4864, 1999) In the pres

C. L. Olsthoorn et al., EMBO J. 18: 4856-4864, 1999). In the present study, the

switch between CPB and TL conformers was further investigated. First, we showed that recognition of the AMV 3′ untranslated region (UTR) by a tRNA-specific enzyme (CCA-adding enzyme) in vitro is more efficient when the distribution is shifted toward the TL conformation. Second, the recognition of the 3′ UTR by the viral replicase was similarly dependent on the ratio of CBP and TL conformers. Furthermore, the addition of CP, which is expected to shift the distribution toward the CPB conformer, inhibited recognition by the CCA-adding enzyme and the replicase. Finally, we monitored how the binding affinity to CP is affected by this conformational selleck chemicals llc switch in the yeast three-hybrid system. Here, disruption of the pseudoknot enhanced the binding affinity to CP by shifting the balance in favor of the CPB conformer, whereas stabilizing the pseudoknot did the reverse. Together, the in vitro and in vivo data clearly demonstrate the existence of the conformational switch in the 3′ UTR of AMV RNAs.”
“Recent studies revealed that posttranslational modifications (e. g., phosphorylation and methylation) of the small hepatitis delta antigen (SHDAg) are required

for hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication from antigenomic Paclitaxel datasheet to genomic RNA. The phosphorylation of SHDAg at serine 177 (Ser(177)) is involved in this step, and this residue is crucial for interaction with RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), the enzyme assumed to be responsible for antigenomic RNA replication. This study demonstrated that SHDAg dephosphorylated at Ser(177) interacted preferentially with hypophosphorylated RNAP II (RNAP IIA), which generally binds at the transcription initiation sites. In contrast, the Ser(177)-phosphorylated counterpart (pSer(177)-SHDAg) exhibited preferential binding

to hyperphosphorylated RNAP II (RNAP IIO). In addition, RNAP IIO associated with pSer(177)-SHDAg was hyperphosphorylated at both the Ser(2) and Ser(5) residues of its carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD), which is IPI145 cost a hallmark of the transcription elongation isoform. Moreover, the RNAP II CTD kinase inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB) not only blocked the interaction between pSer(177)-SHDAg and RNAP IIO but also inhibited HDV antigenomic replication. Our results suggest that the phosphorylation of SHDAg at Ser(177) shifted its affinity toward the RNA RNAP IIO isoform and thus is a switch for HDV antigenomic RNA replication from the initiation to the elongation stage.”
“Pain is a complex and subjective experience that involves not only the transduction of noxious stimuli by nociceptive fibers, but also the cognitive and emotional processing by the brain.

Using this method, the nociceptive responses of A(delta)-fibers i

Using this method, the nociceptive responses of A(delta)-fibers in S1 were verified, and the somatotopic map of the first nociceptive component

in S1 was identified. We found that whether light touch or laser-induced nociception was applied to the tail of the rat, the responsive topography in S1 was consistent. Discrimination of these two modalities was achieved vertically in the same column; the deeper layer represented the nociceptive response while the superficial layer encoded the response to light touch. This is quite different from that of a primate brain. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. check details Human spatial navigation can be conceptualized as egocentric or exocentric, depending on the navigator’s perspective. Navigational impairment is known to occur in individuals with cognitive impairment, but less is known about navigational abilities in nondemented older adults. Our objective was to develop tests of navigation and study their cognitive correlates in nondemented older adults.

Methods. We developed a Local Route Recall Test (LRRT) to examine egocentric navigation and a Floor Maze Test (FMT) to assess exocentric navigation

in 127 older adults without dementia or amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Factor analysis was used to reduce neuropsychological test scores to three cognitive factors representing Executive Function/Attention, Verbal selleck inhibitor Ability, and Memory. We examined relationships between navigational tests and cognitive function (using both cognitive factors ZD1839 and the highest loading individual test on each factor) in a series of regression analyses adjusted for demographic variables (age, sex, and education), medical illnesses. and gait velocity.

Results. The tests were well tolerated, easy to administer. and reliable in this nondemented and non-MCI sample. Egocentric skills on the LRRT

were associated with Executive Function/Attention (B = -0.650: 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.535 to -0.139) and Memory (B = -0.518; 95% CI, -4.893 to -0.063) factors. Exocentric navigation on the FMT was related to Executive Function/Attention (B = -8.542: 95% CI, -13.357 to -3.727).

Conclusions. Our tests appear to assess egocentric and exocentric navigation skills in cognitively normal older adults. and these skills are associated with specific cognitive processes such as executive function and memory.”
“In anesthetized and immobilized domestic cats, we have studied the effects of brief reversible inactivation (by cooling to 10 degrees C) of the ipsilateral or contralateral posterotemporal visual (PTV) cortices on: 1) the magnitude of spike-responses of neurons in striate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 17, area V1) to optimized sine-wave modulated contrast-luminosity gratings confined to the classical receptive fields (CRFs) and 2) the relative strengths of modulation of CRF-induced spike-responses by gratings extending into the extra-classical receptive field (ECRF).

These studies show that A beta amyloid deposits can cause the loc

These studies show that A beta amyloid deposits can cause the local aggregation of alpha-syn, but these did not lead

to more extensive alpha-syn pathology. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“When making intertemporal decisions, i.e., decisions between outcomes occurring at different instants in time, humans and animals prefer rewards with short-term availability over rewards that become available in the long run. Discounted utility theory (DUT) is an influential normative model for intertemporal decisions that attempts to capture preference over time. It prescribes which is the best decision to take with respect to consistent, coherent and optimal choice. Over the last few decades, DUT’s descriptive validity has been critically challenged. Empirical studies found systematic violations of several of DUT’s assumptions, including time-consistency of preferences, stationarity, click here constant discounting and utility maximisation. To account for these anomalies, alternative models have been devised in various academic disciplines, including economics,

psychology, biology, philosophy, and most lately, cognitive neuroscience. This article reviews the most recent literature AZD9291 supplier on the behavioural and neural processes underlying intertemporal choices, and elucidates to which extent these findings can be used to explain violations of DUT’s assumptions. In the first three sections, DUT is introduced, and behavioural anomalies are discussed. The fourth part focuses on the neuroscience of intertemporal choice, including its functional

neuroanatomy, attempts to find a discounted value signal in the brain, and recent efforts to identify neural mechanisms producing time-inconsistencies. In the last section, the computational literature on neural learning mechanisms is reviewed. Then, a new, biologically plausible computational model of intertemporal choice is proposed that is able GSK3326595 nmr to explain many of the behavioural anomalies. The implications of these results help to understand why humans and animals frequently decide irrationally and to their long-term economic disadvantage, and which neural mechanisms underly such decisions. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“HIV-1 Protease (PR) and Reverse Transcriptase (RT) genotyping is well established for the management of antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, as it is able to detect gene mutations encoding resistance to ARV compounds or drug classes, that are associated with reduced drug susceptibility (i.e. phenotype). A correct phenotypic interpretation from the derived PR-RI genotype (i.e. virtual phenotype), requires a well characterized geno-phenotype correlative database and appropriate statistical predictive models.

The significant enhancement of neural

responses was obser

The significant enhancement of neural

responses was observed over the entire tested frequency range (0.1-16 kHz) with a relative peak in the band of 3.2-9.6 kHz. The capability of exhibiting spikes synchronizing with successive clicks was also enhanced. All these effects were more apparent when the neurons were driven by high intensity sounds. Salicylate-administration also decreased the mean spontaneous rate in A1 units, and the decrease of spontaneous rate was larger in the units with a high initial spontaneous rate. Our data confirm that salicylate can modulate the neural activity at the cortical level and provide more information for understanding the mechanism of salicylate-induced tinnitus. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The this website rostral ventro-medial medullary reticular formation is a complex structure that is involved with a variety of motor functions. It contains glycinergic neurons that are activated during active (rapid eye movement (REM)) sleep (AS); these neurons appear to be responsible for the postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons that occurs during this state. We have reported that neurons in this same region contain nitric oxide (NO) synthase and that they innervate brainstem motor pools. In

the present study we examined the c-fos expression Z-IETD-FMK order of these neurons after carbachol-induced active sleep (C-AS). Three control and

four experimental cats were employed to identify c-fos expressing nitrergic neurons using immunocytochemical techniques to detect the Fos protein together with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase activity. The classical neurotransmitter content of the nitrergic cells in this region was examined through the combination of immunocytochemical techniques for the detection of glutamate, glycine, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) or GABA together with nNOS. During C-AS, there was a 1074% increase in the number of nitrergic neurons that expressed https://www.selleck.cn/products/brigatinib-ap26113.html c-fos. These neurons did not contain glycine, ChAT, TH or GABA, but a subpopulation (15%) of them displayed glutamate-like immunoreactivity. Therefore, some of these neurons contain both an excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) and an excitatory neuromodulator (NO); the neurotransmitter content of the rest of them remains to be determined. Because some of the nitrergic neurons innervate brainstem motoneurons it is possible that they participate in the generation of tonic and excitatory phasic motor events that occur during AS. We also suggest that these nitrergic neurons may be involved in autonomic regulation during this state.

In the prospective analysis, fatigue at baseline was predictive o

In the prospective analysis, fatigue at baseline was predictive of change in walking speed among men (beta = -.04, p < .001) but not among women (beta = -.005, p = .64). Among men, muscle strength accounted up to 15% for the association between baseline fatigue and change in maximum walking


Mobility-related fatigue is associated with slower walking speed in older adults. The results suggest that muscle strength is one of the underlying factors explaining this MK-0518 association.”
“Most drugs of abuse stimulate both locomotor activity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the relationship between the two responses within the same subjects and their reliabilities has been scarcely studied. Our objectives were to study: (1) the consistency and stability across time of locomotor and HPA activation induced by repeated d-amphetamine (AMPH); (2) the relationship between locomotor and hormonal responses to AMPH; and (3) the relationship between novelty-induced activity and both types of responses to the drug.

Male adult rats were exposed to a novel environment to study the locomotor response. Later, they were injected with AMPH (2 mg/kg, sc) for 5 days. In Experiment 1, Plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels

in response to AMPH were studied on days 1, 3, and 5, and locomotor response on days 2 and 4. In Experiment 2, ACTH and corticosterone responses were studied on days 2 and 4, and locomotor response on days 1, 3, and 5.

Across days, both locomotor and HPA responses to PS-341 in vitro the drug were consistent, but independent measures, unrelated to the reactivity to novelty. As measured by the area under the curve, the HPA response to AMPH desensitized YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 ic50 with the repeated injection, whereas the initial locomotor response to the drug increased.

Dissociation exists between HPA and locomotor activation induced by AMPH, which seemed to be both

reliable individual traits. Locomotor reactivity to novelty was related neither to HPA nor to locomotor responses to AMPH.”
“Mortality risk tends to be higher among elderly individuals with higher serum adiponectin levels. The objective of this study was to clarify whether the relationship between adiponectin and a higher risk of disability or death can be explained by physical function, bone mineral density, depression, and malnutrition.

We analyzed 505 individuals who underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment and who agreed to provide information on long-term care insurance. The endpoint was the composite outcome of death and incident disability defined as a first certification for any level of care need. Relationships between adiponectin and incident disability or death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model.

During 6 years of follow-up, 179 incident disabilities or deaths occurred. Among them, 20 and 23 died with and without disability, respectively.

Electroencephalogram (EEG) was continually recorded in order to a

Electroencephalogram (EEG) was continually recorded in order to assess P300 responses, an event-related potential (ERP) associated with attention and memory processes. Trauma history only, and not dissociation or PTSD scores, predicted smaller P300 amplitudes to target tones. To distracting novel sounds, only trauma history and dissociation predicted unique variance in P300 amplitudes. The findings suggest that PTSD may not be central to the attentional disturbances found in traumatized samples, while trauma history and dissociation may play a more important role. Future studies investigating attentional processes post trauma should utilize dissociation scales and a non-trauma

sample. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We evaluated Rigosertib the morbidity of nephrectomy in patients older than age 80 years.

Materials and Methods: Between June 2002 and March 2011, 2,530 patients underwent surgery for renal tumor at 5 French academic centers. Of these patients 180 (7.1%) were age 80 years or older, including 22 (12%) and 158 (88%) who underwent partial and radical nephrectomy, respectively, and 47 (26.1%) who were treated with a laparoscopic approach.

Results: Mean patient age was 82.3 Selleck ABT737 years. Median Charlson score was 4. Mean preoperative glomerular filtration rate was 47 ml/minute. A total

of 136 complications were recorded in 70 patients (38.8% of all patients). Of the patients 28 (15.5%), 25 (13.9%) and 17 (9.4%) experienced 1, 2 and 3 or more complications, respectively. According to the modified Clavien classification grade I, II, III, IV and V complications were observed in 7, 81, 19, 23 and 6 patients, respectively. The transfusion rate was 31.1% (56). On logistic regression analysis the parameters of PF-6463922 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status 2 to 4 (p = 0.035) and preoperative glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/minute (p = 0.03) were independent predictive factors of morbidity.

Conclusions: Morbidity and mortality are significant in the octogenarian population. The

risk of complications should be considered in decision making for patients with renal cell carcinoma older than age 80 years.”
“The objective of this study was to assess the generality of the association of DRD2 and DAT genes and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) diagnosis/symptom severity. Two hundred ethnic Armenians from 12 multigenerational families exposed to the catastrophic 1988 Spitak earthquake were studied. Common polymorphisms A1/A2 alleles of the DRD2 and ’9′ repeat allele of DAT gene were genotyped. Heritability, association and linkage were assessed using variance component genetic analyses. After adjusting for the covariates, the heritabilities of PTSD diagnosis and B and C category symptoms were: 0.37, 0.75 and 0.39 respectively. Category D symptoms were not heritable.

Here we report expression of TGF-beta 1 and its receptors namely,

Here we report expression of TGF-beta 1 and its receptors namely, transforming growth factor-beta

receptor I (T beta RI) and transforming growth factor-beta receptor II (T beta RII) in AMC and BV-2 cells induced by hypoxia. Firstly, increase in TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and TGF-beta 1 release was observed in the corpus callosum in postnatal rats subjected to a single hypoxic exposure. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed a concomitant upregulation of T beta RI and T beta RII mRNA and protein. Secondly, immunofluorescence labeling showed that the preponderant AMC in the corpus callosum were immunoreactive for TGF-beta 1 and its receptors. In rats subjected to hypoxia, immunoexpression of TGF-beta 10058-F4 mw 1 and both receptors was markedly enhanced. In longer surviving rats, the AMC transformed into ramified microglia but retained in them the immunoreactivity. In BV-2 cells exposed to hypoxia, TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and release of TGF-beta 1 into the medium were significantly increased. It is noteworthy that expression of T beta RI and T beta RII mRNA and protein in hypoxic BV-2 cells was reduced indicating a differential response of AMC and BV-2 cells to hypoxia. Notwithstanding, it is unequivocal

that AMC in the developing brain express and release TGF-beta 1 into the ambient environment. We suggest that this may be a mechanism to help autoregulate microglial selleck chemicals llc activation in adverse conditions via its receptors. BGJ398 in vitro (C) 2008 IBRC.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The aim was to examine the effect of various surgical maneuvers during standard surgery for small saphenous varicose veins (SSV).

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients that underwent small saphenous varicose vein surgery. Two-hundred nineteen consecutive patients (234 legs) with isolated primar, or recurrent small saphenous varicose veins undergoing surgery were enrolled in a multicenter study involving nine vascular centers in the United Kingdom. Operative technique was determined by individual surgeon preference; clinical and operative details, including the use of stripping, were recorded. Clinical examination (recurrence rates) and duplex imaging (superficial and deep incompetence) were evaluated at six weeks and one year after surgery.

Results: A total of 204 legs were reviewed at one year; 67 had small saphenous varicose vein stripping, 116 had saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) disconnection only, and the remainder had miscellaneous procedures. The incidence of visible recurrent varicosities at one year was lower after SSV stripping (12 of 67, 18%) than after disconnection only (28 of 116, 24%), although this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the rate of numbness at one year between those who had SSV stripping (20 of 71, 28%) and those who had disconnection only (38 of 134, 28%).