Using this method, the nociceptive responses of A(delta)-fibers i

Using this method, the nociceptive responses of A(delta)-fibers in S1 were verified, and the somatotopic map of the first nociceptive component

in S1 was identified. We found that whether light touch or laser-induced nociception was applied to the tail of the rat, the responsive topography in S1 was consistent. Discrimination of these two modalities was achieved vertically in the same column; the deeper layer represented the nociceptive response while the superficial layer encoded the response to light touch. This is quite different from that of a primate brain. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. check details Human spatial navigation can be conceptualized as egocentric or exocentric, depending on the navigator’s perspective. Navigational impairment is known to occur in individuals with cognitive impairment, but less is known about navigational abilities in nondemented older adults. Our objective was to develop tests of navigation and study their cognitive correlates in nondemented older adults.

Methods. We developed a Local Route Recall Test (LRRT) to examine egocentric navigation and a Floor Maze Test (FMT) to assess exocentric navigation

in 127 older adults without dementia or amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Factor analysis was used to reduce neuropsychological test scores to three cognitive factors representing Executive Function/Attention, Verbal selleck inhibitor Ability, and Memory. We examined relationships between navigational tests and cognitive function (using both cognitive factors ZD1839 and the highest loading individual test on each factor) in a series of regression analyses adjusted for demographic variables (age, sex, and education), medical illnesses. and gait velocity.

Results. The tests were well tolerated, easy to administer. and reliable in this nondemented and non-MCI sample. Egocentric skills on the LRRT

were associated with Executive Function/Attention (B = -0.650: 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.535 to -0.139) and Memory (B = -0.518; 95% CI, -4.893 to -0.063) factors. Exocentric navigation on the FMT was related to Executive Function/Attention (B = -8.542: 95% CI, -13.357 to -3.727).

Conclusions. Our tests appear to assess egocentric and exocentric navigation skills in cognitively normal older adults. and these skills are associated with specific cognitive processes such as executive function and memory.”
“In anesthetized and immobilized domestic cats, we have studied the effects of brief reversible inactivation (by cooling to 10 degrees C) of the ipsilateral or contralateral posterotemporal visual (PTV) cortices on: 1) the magnitude of spike-responses of neurons in striate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 17, area V1) to optimized sine-wave modulated contrast-luminosity gratings confined to the classical receptive fields (CRFs) and 2) the relative strengths of modulation of CRF-induced spike-responses by gratings extending into the extra-classical receptive field (ECRF).

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