LAIVs have been demonstrated to induce enhanced mucosal and cell-mediated immunity better than inactivated vaccines while also requiring a smaller dose to achieve a protective immune response. To address the need for a reassortment-incompetent live influenza A virus vaccine, we have designed a chimeric virus that takes advantage of the fact that influenza A and B viruses do not reassort. Our novel vaccine prototype uses an attenuated influenza B virus that has been manipulated to express the ectodomain of the influenza A hemagglutinin protein, the major target for eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The hemagglutinin RNA segment selleck is modified such that it contains
influenza B packaging signals, and therefore it cannot be incorporated into a wild-type influenza A virus. We have applied our strategy to different influenza A virus subtypes and generated chimeric B/PR8 HA (H1), HK68 (H3), and VN (H5) viruses. All recombinant viruses were attenuated both in vitro and in vivo, and immunization with these recombinant viruses protected mice against lethal influenza A virus infection. Overall, our data indicate AZ 628 that
the chimeric live-attenuated influenza B viruses expressing the modified influenza A hemagglutinin are effective LAIVs.”
“A meta-analysis of 41 studies examined the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes in a variety of settings with both child and adult samples.
Results indicated that providing choice enhanced intrinsic motivation, effort, task performance, and perceived competence, among other outcomes. Moderator tests revealed the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation was stronger (a) for instructionally irrelevant choices compared to choices made between activities, versions of a task, rewards, and instructionally relevant options, AZD2014 (b) when 2 to 4 successive choices were given, (c) when rewards were not given after the choice manipulation, (d) when participants given choice were compared to the most controlling forms of control groups, (e) for children compared to adults, (f) for designs that yoked choice and control conditions compared to matched designs in which choice was reduced or designs in which nonyoked, nonmatched controls were used, and (g) when the experiment was conducted in a laboratory embedded in a natural setting. Implications for future research and applications to real-world settings are discussed.”
“The serotonergic centrifugal system innervating the main olfactory bulb (MOB) plays a key role in the modulation of olfactory processing. We have previously demonstrated that this system suffers adaptive changes under conditions of a lack of olfactory input. The present work examines the response of this centrifugal system after mitral cell loss in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant mice.