RRAM devices containing materials such as HfO x [5, 6], SrTiO3, TiO2[8, 23], ZrO2[24, 25], Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, NiO x , ZnO [28, 29], TaO x [30, 31], and AlO x [32, 33] have been reported. However, GeO x has only been used in RRAM as Ni/GeO x /SrTiO x /TaN  and Cu/GeO x /W  structures and in Ge-doped HfO2 films . RRAM devices containing nanotubes and Si NWs have also been reported [37–39]. Although 3-MA price many switching materials and structures have been developed, the switching mechanism of RRAM devices remains unclear despite it being very important for application
of RRAM. Ge/GeO x NWs in an IrO x /Al2O3/Ge NWs/SiO2/p-Si metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure MAPK inhibitor have not been reported either. Because of the self-limitation of current compliance (CC < 20 μA) in MOS structures, here we fabricate an IrO x /GeO x /W metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure to understand how the resistive switching mechanism involves oxygen ion migration through the porous IrO x electrode.
It is also important to investigate the scalability potential of RRAM devices. The size of devices is typically limited by equipment or cost, so the diameter of conducting pathways could be investigated using switching characteristics or leaky pathways rather than by fabricating large-scale devices. We believe the feature size of RRAM devices and their scalability potential will be considered the same as the diameter of the minimum conduction path in the future. We previously investigated the effect of nanofilament diameter on the properties of CBRAM devices . However, a method to investigate the diameter of conducting paths in RRAM devices has not been developed. In this work, we determine the diameter of Ge/GeO x nanofilaments in a GeO x film within a MIM structure under SET operation using a new method. The results suggest that Ge/GeO x NWs form
under SET operation in the GeO x film. In this study, the growth of Ge NWs using the vapor–liquid-solid Histone demethylase (VLS) technique is investigated. The fabricated core-shell Ge/GeO x NWs are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Defects in the Ge/GeO x NWs are observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at 10 to 300 K. The resistive switching memory of the Ge/GeO x NWs in an IrO x /Al2O3/Ge NWs/p-Si structure with a self-limited low current of <20 μA is determined. The mechanism of resistive switching involves oxygen ion migration, which is observed by the evolution of oxygen gas on the top electrode (TE) in an IrO x /GeO x /W structure under sufficient applied voltage.