Two patients with WHO functional class IV PAH died during bosenta

Two patients with WHO functional class IV PAH died during bosentan therapy.CONCLUSION:

Treatment of CHD patients with shunt-associated PAH with the ERA bosentan is associated with an improvement in functional class and objectively measured exercise capacity. The consistency of the uncontrolled data and the positive results of a single randomized clinical trial suggest Citarinostat chemical structure a role for ERA therapy in CHD patients with shunt-associated PAH. Caution is suggested when considering bosentan therapy for CHD patients with WHO functional class IV PAH.”
“Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and mass spectrometry (MS) imaging are advanced technologies capable of revealing the spatial distribution

of different molecules – e.g., drugs and their metabolites, endogenous lipids and complex peptides/proteins Flavopiridol – directly in tissue specimens at the same time. Information obtained regarding tissues by MALDI profiling/imaging analysis can be correlated with other MS-based techniques, auxiliary imaging technologies and routine immunohistochemical stainings. In this review we describe the MALDI profiling/imaging technologies, providing examples of their application in kidney research.”

A descriptive tool for determining awakening in infants is desirable to test the value of

depth of anesthesia monitors. Although scales and criteria have been developed for children and infants, none has been applied to the study of anesthetised neonates. We aimed to seek consensus in a group of experts on a definition of awakening at the end of anesthesia in neonates.


We used a modified Delphi technique with an iterative

process of questionnaires and anonymised feedback. Communication was conducted by email. Thirty-one consultant pediatric anesthetists in the UK and Ireland took part. Consensus was defined a priori as 80% agreement.


The 83% of respondents agreed that defining awakening is possible. Consensus was reached on six criteria and also that a GS-4997 cost combination of these criteria must be used. As crying and attempting to cry are similar, we propose that at least two of the following five behaviors are present to consider a neonate awake after anesthesia: (i) crying or attempting to cry, (ii) vigorous limb movements, (iii) gagging on a tracheal tube, (iv) eyes open, and (v) looking around. There was also consensus that three stimuli are appropriate to test rousability in neonates awakening from anesthesia: (i) removal of skin adhesive tape, (ii) stroking/tickling the skin or gentle shaking, and (iii) pharyngeal suction.


We propose a scale for determining awakening from anesthesia in neonates that may be used in future studies, particularly regarding electroencephalographic data and depth of anesthesia monitoring in neonates.

“Purpose We present 120 patients (37 males, 83 females) af

“Purpose We present 120 patients (37 males, 83 females) affected by thoracic lumbar scoliosis, treated by posterior instrumented arthrodesis with the insertion of pedicle screws by “”free hand technique”", without any image guided system, radioscopy use during insertion or intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

Methods Seventy-two (60%) patients have been treated by hybrid instrumentation with lumbar and thoracic screws, hooks and wires at thoracic levels, while the remaining

48 (40%) patients have used only Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library manufacturer lumbar and thoracic pedicle screws. Mean Cobb grades value of the main scoliotic curve was 73 degrees before surgery in patients treated by hybrid instrumentation, reduced to 37.5 degrees after surgery. In patients

treated only by screws, mean Cobb grades value of the main scoliotic curve was 65 degrees, reduced to 16 degrees after surgery.

Results Minimum follow up has been 3 years; mean patient age at surgery was Copanlisib solubility dmso 15 years and 4 months. We placed a total number of 1,004 pedicle screws, 487 of which at thoracic level. In 12 patients (10%) a total number of 20 screws were misplaced at postoperatory exam, without any clinical complication for the patients or consequences on the arthrodesis or on maintaining the correction of the curve.

Conclusions In our experience pedicle screws is the method that leads to best correction and balance on vertebral bodies, with best results at distance concerning correction maintaining. Our experience shows that even at thoracic level, pedicle screws insertion by free-hand technique is safe and selleck screening library reliable.”
“Intestinal barrier function and serum concentrations of rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide were studied in healthy controls and patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. A case-control study of 29 controls and 30 cases attending at the Health Center, July, 2004 to December, 2005 was conducted. The body mass index was significantly

reduced in cases compared to controls (p < 0.001). The intestinal paracellular transport of lactulose was significantly (p = 0.019) reduced in cases compared to controls. The transcellular transport of mannitol and the lactulose: mannitol ratio were not significantly (p = 0.0698) reduced in cases compared to controls. Low serum concentrations of rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide were observed in 81% (48/59), 92% (54/59) and 28% (12/59), respectively, in all individuals. The results demonstrated a marked decrease on intestinal paracellular transport in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and reduced serum concentrations of rifampin and isoniazid in both groups.”
“Purpose This prospective, randomized trial was designed to assess whether the i-gel supraglottic airway device is suitable for volume-controlled ventilation while applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH(2)O under general anesthesia. It was believed that this device might improve arterial oxygenation.

Systematic reviews must also make use of an expansive search stra

Systematic reviews must also make use of an expansive search strategy, with use of multiple resources,

to demonstrate the reproducibility of selection and quality-assessment criteria, selleckchem to perform a quantitative analysis and adjustment for confounding where appropriate, and to explore possible reasons for differences between the results of the primary studies. In this paper, we address the advantages and limitations of systematic reviews and metaanalyses of observational studies and suggest solutions at the design phase of protocol development.”
“In male infertility, complementary treatment with antioxidant-containing food supplements quadruples the spontaneous pregnancy rate and reduces the cost per pregnancy by 60%. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To study the

influence of a regional collaboration in epithelial ovarian S3I-201 solubility dmso cancer care on staging procedures, debulking results, and survival.

METHODS: In an effort to optimize epithelial ovarian cancer treatment, a regional collaboration was introduced in the Netherlands in 2000. Gynecologic oncologists from the university center conducted surgery in community hospitals when ovarian cancer was considered based on the risk of malignancy index or clinical suspicion. The National Cancer Registry registered 1,554 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in 11 participating Dutch hospitals between 1996 and 2010. Surgical procedures were compared during three periods (1996-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009). Log-rank tests compared Kaplan-Meier survival curves of progression-free and overall survival before (1996-2000) and during the start of the collaboration (2001-2005).

RESULTS: Staging

was adequate for 139 patients (23.0%) before collaboration, and this proportion increased during the study periods to 32.1% and 62.1% (P<.01), when gynecologic oncologists SN-38 cell line more often staged cancer in patients (36.7% compared with 54.7% and 80.6%; P<.01). For 1,197 patients with advanced stage disease (stage IIb or greater), the proportion of debulking procedures with an optimal (residual volume less than1 cm) as well as a complete result (no residuals) increased during the 14-year study period from 57.4% to 76.5% (P<.01) and from 24.1% to 43.4% (P<.01), respectively. Survival rates were similar before and during the start of the collaboration. In multivariable analysis, the treatment variables completeness of debulking, chemotherapy, and gynecologic oncologist attendance were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, as were age, stage, and tumor grade.

CONCLUSIONS: After regional collaboration, gynecologic oncologists attended more surgeries and surgical outcomes improved, but progress in survival could not be demonstrated. Regional collaboration improved care for ovarian cancer patients.

Self-reported disability and pain improved substantially by the e

Self-reported disability and pain improved substantially by the early post operative measurement. Mean change scores (ODI = 29; SF-36BP = -45), significant

at the p < 0.05 but not significant at the p < 0.001, were very large and effect sizes exceeded notably criteria for large clinical improvements (> 0.80). Improvements were maintained at 2-3 years. Both scales had floor and ceiling effects implying changes may be underestimated. Alvespimycin solubility dmso There were no surgical complications.

In this small study, X-STOP appeared safe and effective. It is less invasive than other established surgical procedures, but does not jeopardise other options in the event of failure. Large scale clinical trials are justified but floor and ceiling effects suggest that the ODI and SF-36 may not be the best choice of outcome measures for those studies.”
“Enterotoxin A containing various leader sequences

have been obtained by site-driven mutagenesis. Some of them were capable of providing the translocation of recombinant SEA to E. coli periplasmic space. Structure of C-region of the signal peptide is essential for intracellular protein location. Substitution of a more common to E. coli proproteins Ala-Ser-Ala for the authentic sequence of Val-Asn-Gly is the most important in recognition by signal peptidase type I.”
“The revised Tokuhashi score has been widely used to evaluate indications for surgery and predict survival in patients with metastatic JIB-04 order Z-DEVD-FMK in vivo spinal disease. Our aim was to analyse the actual survival time of patients treated for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in comparison with the predicted survival based on the revised Tokuhashi score. This would thereby allow us to determine the overall

predictive value of this scoring system.

This study was a semi-prospective clinical study of all patients with MSCC presenting to our unit over 8 years-data from October 2003 to December 2009 were collected retrospectively and from December 2009, all data collected prospectively to October 2011. Patients were divided into three groups-Group 1 (Tokuhashi score 0-8, n = 84), Group 2 (Tokuhashi score 9-11, n = 83) and Group 3 (Tokuhashi score 12-15, n = 34). Data collected included demographic data, primary tumour histology, surgery type and complications, neurological outcome (Frankel grade) and survival.

A total of 233 patients with MSCC were managed surgically in our unit during this time. Out of these complete data were available on 201 patients for analysis. Mean age of patients was 61 years (range 18-86; 127 M, 74 F). The primary tumour type was Breast (n = 29, 15 %), Haematological (n = 28, 14 %), Renal (n = 26, 13 %), Prostate (n = 26, 13 %), Lung (n = 23, 11 %), Gastro-intestinal (n = 11, 5 %), Sarcoma (n = 9, 4 %) and others (n = 49, 24 %). All patients included in the study had surgical intervention in the form of decompression and stabilisation.

An allele-specific PCR protocol that detected the NS3/4A protease

An allele-specific PCR protocol that detected the NS3/4A protease resistance substitutions V36A and A156S/T/V was used to determine the prevalence of naturally occurring variants in 45 patients. All patient samples were infected with HCV of genotype 1b and were naive for pegIFN alpha/ribavirin treatment. Thirty samples (67%) had at least one HCV PI-resistant variant. A156T (23, 51%) was detected more frequently than A156V (13, 29%) or A156S (1, 2%). V36A was detected in 12 samples (27%). These results demonstrate the high prevalence of minority drug-resistant

NS3/4 protease resistance substitutions. Our results also demonstrate that allele-specific Ipatasertib in vitro PCR can be used to detect minor HCV NS3 protease resistant variants check details in pretreatment samples and to study in detail the evolution of mutant viruses during targeted antiviral therapy.”
“Objective. The objective of this study was to provide the safest and most efficient site for injection of botulinum toxin type A into the masseter muscle.

Study design. This study was performed on 40 hemifaces from cadavers. The surface of the masseter was compartmentalized into areas I to VIII. Areas I, III, V, and VII were assigned to represent the upper 4 compartments from the posterior aspect of each muscle, and areas II, IV, VI, and VIII were assigned to represent

the lower 4 compartments.

Results. The parotid gland usually covered compartments I and II, and the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was located a mean of 7.4 mm above the inferior mandibular margin. The parotid AZD2171 nmr duct was usually located above the reference line connecting the tragus and the cheilion.

Conclusion. The center of compartment VI is the safest and most efficient injection site for botulinum toxin type A into the masseter muscle. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 110: 167-171)”
“The impact of ternary additions of Mg, V, Mn, and B on the A1 [face centered cubic (fcc)] to L1(0) phase transformation has been studied. The films were cosputter deposited from elemental targets at room temperature and annealed after deposition. The films had Mg additions in the range similar to 0-2.6 at.%, V

additions in the range 0.7-12.2 at.%, Mn additions in the range 2.2-16.3 at.%, and B additions in the range 1.2-12.9 at.%. For all four ternary alloy systems, annealing resulted in the formation of no other phases than the L10 phase. Ternary additions of <1.8 at.% Mg, <5.8 at.% V, <6.0 at.% Mn, and <4.8 at.% B had little or no impact on the kinetic ordering temperature (KOT). The behavior of the activation energy for the transformation mirrored that for the KOT, except for Mg additions, which showed no measurable impact for the compositions studied. The transformation enthalpies for the ternary alloys were similar to those for binary FePt films. Only four of the films (with additions of 2.6 at.% Mg, 2.2 at.% and 6.0 at.% Mn, and 4.8 at.

Recall accuracy and rate of recall were not correlated in either

Recall accuracy and rate of recall were not correlated in either experiment, reflecting independence of these mechanisms.

Conclusions: It is possible to measure the operations of storage and processing mechanisms in working Navitoclax manufacturer memory in a single task, and only storage is impaired for children with CIs. These findings suggest that research and clinical efforts should focus on enhancing the saliency of representation for children with CIs. Direct instruction of syntax and semantics could facilitate storage

in real-world working memory tasks. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The present study examined the relation of cognitive and emotional representations of illness specified by the Common Sense Model of Illness Cognition (Handbook of Psychology and Health: Social Psychological Aspects of Health. Earlbaum, Hillsdale: New York, 1984; 219-252) with the coping strategies and perceived health of patients who were treated for breast cancer.

Methods: Participants were 119 women within 2 years after their diagnosis of breast cancer, who completed a questionnaire containing measures of illness representations, coping strategies and perceived physical and mental health.

Results: Breast cancer patients differ in the subjective perception of their

disease. Patients who view their illness as a condition with serious symptoms and consequences, patients who believe their illness is chronic and patients who consider their illness uncontrollable were found to report worse physical and mental health than those who believed the opposite. Regression CX-5461 concentration Wnt assay analysis showed that, after controlling for external variables, the cognitive illness representations identity and consequences explained 57% of variance in physical health, whereas emotional

illness representation and treatment control explained 47% of variance in mental health.

Conclusion: Results provide some support for the hypotheses of the Common Sense Model of Illness Cognition. Illness representations seem to play an important role in perceived health in breast cancer. The implications of these findings for the design of health-care-related interventions for breast cancer patients are discussed. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e. g.

For this purpose additional band line-up measurements using low i

For this purpose additional band line-up measurements using low intensity x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS) were performed. LIXPS has been

demonstrated to not cause the artifact, i.e., can be used to detect its occurrence. The results of these experiments show that the AZD5363 clinical trial UV-induced work function reduction is not observed on the annealed interface, but that at contaminated interfaces care must be taken during data evaluation to take the artifact into account. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3596544]“
“PURPOSE To compare the corneal biomechanical properties in eyes of patients with diabetes mellitus and in those of subjects without diabetes mellitus

SETTING Hospital eye clinic

DESIGN Comparative case series

METHODS Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal response factor (CRF) were measured in diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects using the Ocular Response Analyzer Central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were also measured Differences

in corneal biomechanical properties were determined using a 1-way analysis of variance Interassociations between ocular and selleck products diabetic parameters were also evaluated

RESULTS Sixty-one eyes of 61 diabetic patients and 123 eyes of 123 nondiabetic subjects were evaluated The CRF was significantly greater in the eyes of diabetic patients (mean difference 1 09 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [Cl], 049-1 69, P = 001) There were no significant

differences in CCT or CH between groups (CH mean difference, 0 38 mm Hg, 95% Cl 0 21 to 0 97 mm Hg, P = 21 CCT mean difference, 0 13 urn, 95% Cl, 10 6 to 10 8 pin P = 98) Corneal hysteresis and CRF were weakly correlated with blood glucose concentration (slopes CH 0 28 95% Cl, 0 03-0 50, P = 03, CRE 0 27, 95% CI 0 02-0 49, P = 04) In a multiple regression analysis, the effects of blood glucose concentration were reduced and age and CCT became significant predictors of CH and CRF

CONCLUSIONS The eyes in diabetic patients displayed altered corneal biomechanics that may be related BTSA1 to blood glucose concentration Further studies are required to establish the effects of long-term poor glucose control on corneal biomechanical properties and how this might affect the diabetic patient’s response to refractive surgery procedures”
“A rare case of pan-subepithelial dystrophic calcium deposition and bone marrow formation in hydronephrosis secondary to obstructive urolithiasis is reported and discussed. An elderly gentleman presented with accelerated hypertension, a nonfunctioning left kidney secondary to obstructive nephrolithiasis with additional pancalyceal calcification. His left retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy specimen revealed sterile hydronephrosis secondary to an impacted ureteropelvic junction stone and pan-subepithelial fibrocalcific lamellar deposition.

Although significant progress has been made in establishing ecolo

Although significant progress has been made in establishing ecological consequences of EE exposure, these studies have focused largely on hydrologically simple systems that lack the complexity of urban

aquatic environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and biological effects of EEs across a large urbanized aquatic ecosystem. A multi-pronged study design was employed relying on quantitative determination of select EEs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and repeated biological monitoring selleck compound of wild-caught and caged fish for indications of endocrine disruption. Over three years, EEs were measured in aqueous samples Danusertib in vitro (n = 42 samples) and biological effects assessed in >1200 male fish across the 2000 km(2) aquatic ecosystems of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Chicago, IL Our study demonstrated that in addition to water reclamation plant (WRP) effluents, non-WRP sources contribute significant EE loads to the aquatic ecosystem. While resident and caged male fish responded with the induction of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin, an indicator of EE exposure, neither resident nor caged sunfish exhibited prevalent histopathological changes to their reproductive organs (i.e., intersex) that have been reported

in other studies. Vitellogenin induction was greater in spring than the fall and was not correlated with body condition factor, gonadosomatic index or hepatosomatic index. Exposure effects were not correlated with sites downstream of treated effluent discharge further affirming the complexity of sources and effects of EEs in urban aquatic ecosystems. selleck inhibitor (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“CoSi2-coated Si nanocrystals were fabricated as the floating gates for nonvolatile memory applications to improve the Si nanocrystal memory performance in terms of programming/erasing efficiency and retention time. Discrete CoSi2-coated Si

nanocrystals were formed by silicidation of Si nanocrystals on SiO2 and subsequent selective etching of unreacted metal cobalt over silicide. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor memories with CoSi2-coated Si nanocrystals and reference Si nanocrystals as floating gates were fabricated and characterized. Longer retention, larger charging capability and faster programming/erasing were observed in CoSi2-coated Si nanocrystal memory compared with Si nanocrystal memory. CoSi2 Fermi-level pinning of defect levels plays important role in the device performance enhancement.”
“Minimally invasive surgery represents one of the main evolutions of surgical techniques aimed at providing a greater benefit to the patient.

0001, least-squares mean

0001, least-squares mean AZ 628 in vivo change from baseline to week 13: PP, -3.5; placebo, +6.2), CGI-S score (P<0.0001), and PANSS Marder factor scores P <= 0.0025) were significantly improved at week 13 in the PP group versus placebo. More treatment responders (>= 30% decrease in PANSS total score) were in the PP group 22.8%) versus placebo (8.5%). Insomnia PP 17.0% versus placebo 15.2%), injection

site pain (13.2% versus 6.7%), nasopharyngitis (12.6% versus 6.1%), psychiatric symptoms (11.3% versus 26.2%), and extrapyramidal symptoms (10.1% versus 4.9%) were the most frequently occurring treatment-emergent adverse events.

Conclusion: PP is efficacious for Asian patients with schizophrenia at the dosing regimen approved in other countries, with a similar safety and tolerability

“Clinical teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum occurs at diverse sites. Analysis of the quality or effectiveness of such sites centres on student feedback. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) is a standardised instrument used internationally to analyse the educational environment.

Our objective was to analyse and compare the student Selleckchem Torin 1 experience at a range of hospital clinical sites in the year 3 undergraduate medical programme in the School of Medicine in University College Cork using the DREEM.

All year 3 students were asked to complete the DREEM at the end of each hospital rotation.

All hospital sites performed well but smaller Selleck Anlotinib hospitals perform particularly well.

In the current climate, schools are compelled to make strategic decisions regarding the configuration of clinical teaching in a context where healthcare is also increasingly

centralised. However, it is clear that smaller hospitals are preferred by students.”
“Background: Bipolar disorder (BP) is often associated with a change in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function change due to chronic stress. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels increase in response to psychosocial stress and thus function as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system activity. However, sAA has been studied less often than salivary cortisol in BP patients.

Method: We measured Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, heart rate variability, and salivary cortisol levels during electrical stimulation stress in 25 BP patients and 22 healthy volunteers.

Results: Tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores in BP patients significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls. In contrast, the vigor scores of BP patients significantly decreased compared with those of the healthy controls. Significant difference in the sAA levels was observed between BP patients and healthy controls. sAA of female patients was significantly higher than that of female healthy controls, and sAA in male patients tended to be higher than that of male healthy controls.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chemical investigation of the leaves of Elaeocarpus serratus yielded myricitrin (1), mearnsetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), mearnsitrin (3), tamarixetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4) and the fruits of Filicium decipiens yielded three flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside (6) and trifolin (7). Compound 1 showed strong antioxidant activity against DPPH.”
“The aim of this study was to

evaluate the efficacy of Cervidil (R), a prostaglandin E(2) (PgE(2))-releasing vaginal insert used for induction of cervical ripening and labour in women, to enhance the ease of transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in anestrous ewes (June). It was hypothesized that the use of Cervidil (R) prior to Al would cause dilation of the cervix, and thus alleviate the difficulty associated with traversing the cervix for semen deposition in sheep. Cervidil (R) was inserted 12 h before insemination in six Rideau-Arcott PCI-34051 cost ewes; six ewes served as untreated controls. Semen was deposited into the uterus of all six treated ewes but TCAI was possible only in four of the six control ewes. It can be concluded that Cervidil (R) facilitated transcervical semen deposition in anestrous ewes. The treatment with Cervidil (R) has the promise of a technique to improve transcervical Al and to enable

non-invasive embryo transfer procedures in sheep. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Familial Mediterranean Fever is the most common congenital, periodic fever condition that affects over 100,000 people worldwide. In the literature, there is limited number of studies about hearing levels in children with Familial Mediterranean Fever. In the present study, we aimed to investigate hearing levels and cochlear functions by using Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission and High Frequency Audiometry (250-20,000 ARS-1620 in vitro Hz) in pediatric patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

Methods: The study included 62 children with Familial Mediterranean Fever and 27 healthy children with similar age and gender. After otoscopic examination, both groups underwent

audiological evaluation including High Frequency Audiometry (250-20,000 Hz) and Distortion product Otoacoustic Emissions. The results obtained were assessed among groups. In addition, these results were compared regarding colchicine use, age at the onset of disease and duration of the diseases in the Familial Mediterranean Fever group.

Results: Of the Familial Mediterranean Fever patients, 93.5% were on colchicine therapy and mean duration of colchicine use was 19.9 +/- 13.9 months. The mean age at diagnosis was 6.57 +/- 2.86 years (min-max: 2-14) and mean duration of disease was 23 +/- 17 months (min-max: 6-84). Pure tone audiometry values, and hearing levels between 9000 and 20,000 Hz were similar and within normal range in both groups.