Median ratings and interquartile ranges were calculated

Median ratings and interquartile ranges were calculated.

Rates >7 and interquartile ranges <3 depicted important and expert-agreed parameters.\n\nResults: Thirty-nine experts compiled a list of 254 items. Twenty-eight experts reached a consensus on 49 important items associated with poor prognosis. They primarily agreed on clinical manifestations of complex regional pain syndrome I. Psychosocial factors were considered less important.\n\nConclusion: The findings of this study indicate that poor prognosis for complex regional pain syndrome 1 is primarily dependent on clinical manifestations. While evidence suggests that psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of the condition, their

Stem Cell Compound Library solubility dmso role in poor prognosis appears to be less important.”
“The reasons for hormone therapy use have changed dramatically over time from being very popular for the purpose of preserving youth in women to menopause-related symptom management, disease prevention, and now learn more back to menopause-related symptom management. Over time, several important risks associated with the use of hormone therapy have become evident, causing dramatic reductions in the use of hormone therapy for periods of time following identification of these risks. Most recently, randomized controlled prevention trials that evaluated hormone therapy for the purpose of reducing or preventing coronary heart disease among women have found that hormone therapy is associated with increased rather OICR-9429 chemical structure than decreased risks for coronary heart disease. The most recent of these trials again identified increased risks for breast cancer associated with estrogen plus progestogen therapy. The evolving evidence base from these randomized controlled prevention trials is complicated and in some cases contradictory. Specifically, the data suggest that the timing of when hormone therapy is initiated once a woman is postmenopausal may influence her risk

for developing heart disease and breast cancer. In this article, contradictory evidence is carefully sifted so risks and benefits can be weighed by clinicians when partnering with women to individualize decisions about using hormone therapy.”
“Women of child bearing age are at a high risk for depression. Despite the high incidence of depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period, guidelines for treating this depression are lacking It is a challenge to treat the illness effectively and also to minimize risk to the fetus or the neonate. The safety of antidepressants during pregnancy is an unresolved issue and has made it difficult to choose the appropriate antidepressant to be used during pregnancy In this review we have suggested some strategies that may be useful to the physicians.

Genetic distance resolves three large clusters One unites the so

Genetic distance resolves three large clusters. One unites the southernmost populations with those from north-central Gulf coastal Florida. A second encompasses southwest Gulf coastal populations. If three compound repeat loci are dropped from the data, these two clusters are united. The third group joins populations derived from the Central Highlands of peninsular Florida, which are genetically isolated from all other peninsular Florida populations, with populations of Iris fulva, Iris brevicaulis, Iris giganticaerulea, and Iris hexagona s.s., supporting recognition of the latter two as distinct species. Model-based Bayesian clustering supports high population differentiation (K = 22) and isolation of Central Highlands populations,

and it resolves the terminal clusters of the genetic distance topology. Isolation Caspase inhibitor clinical trial by distance is significant yet weak because of genetic distance relationships that contradict biogeographic expectations. We propose that the Lake Wales Ridge and Polk Uplands, which constituted the Wicomico shoreline during an early Pleistocene interglacial inundation, functioned as refugia for series Hexagonae. Moreover, we suggest that Florida iris populations occupying high, dry habitats close to the Central Highlands

ridges represent relicts of once-larger populations that adapted to the more xeric condition during the last glacial maximum. These populations have a distinctive floral phenotype and are related to species of Hexagonae iris outside of MX69 Apoptosis inhibitor peninsular Florida. 3-deazaneplanocin A price Excessively clonal populations may have been deliberately cultivated by Native Americans, which may also have influenced the connection between southern and north-central Florida populations, but there is insufficient evidence to validate this hypothesis. Many populations test positively for recent bottlenecks, which we attribute primarily to founder effects, given the low migration rates of the species and the high degree of population differentiation as well as the Holocene geological history of the Florida peninsula.

We present evidence of peripatric divergence in series Hexagonae iris and suggest that this may function as a significant generator of species diversity in the group.”
“Elasticity solutions of two-dimensional functionally graded rotating annular and solid disks with variable thickness are presented. Material properties vary through both the radial and axial directions continuously. Axisymmetric conditions are assumed for the two-dimensional functionally graded disk. The graded finite element method (GFEM) has been applied to solve the equations. The distributions of displacements and stresses in radial and axial directions for four different thickness profiles (constant, linear, concave and convex) and various power law exponents have been investigated. The achieved results show that by the use of functionally graded materials and variable thicknesses, the stresses are reduced, so a higher capability of angular velocity can be obtained.

All rights reserved “
“Fluorinated amino acids serve as powe

All rights reserved.”
“Fluorinated amino acids serve as powerful tools in protein chemistry. We synthesized a series of pare-substituted tetrafluorophenylalanines via the regioselective S-NAr chemistry of the commercially

available pentafluorophenylalanine Boc-Z. These novel unnatural amino acids display distinct F-19 NMR signatures, making them selleck chemical powerful tools for analyzing protein-membrane interactions with NMR spectroscopy.”
“Objective Serous neoplasms of the female pelvis share a mullerian phenotype Unlike low-grade serous neoplasms (LGSNs), high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) commonly display p53 mutations The current study correlates p53 immunoreactivity in peritoneal washings with the cytologic interpretation and histology of the corresponding serous neoplasm Study Design Peritoneal washings JNJ-26481585 from consecutive cases of pelvic serous neoplasms were identified (n = 45, 31 HGSCs and 14 LGSNs), with a control population selected from benign resections Immunoreactivity for p53 was scored as a percentage of positive epithelioid cells by blinded manual cell count Results Washings from LGSNs and HGSCs were cytomorphologically positive with similar frequency (57 vs 77%, respectively, p =

0 15, Fisher’s exact test) Immunoreactivity for p53 was not predictive of morphologic positivity The percentage of p53-positive cells was higher in HGSCs (47 +/- 42%), compared to LGSNs (9 +/- 9%) and negative controls (2 +/- 2%, n = 10) The difference in p53 immunoreactivity was statistically significant (p < 0 00009, ANOVA) Conclusions The proportion of p53 immunoreactive cells was higher in cases of HGSCs, reflecting the importance of p53 mutations in high-grade serous tumorigenesis The presence of p53 staining is not diagnostic for neoplastic cells, however, peritoneal washings are potential specimens in the investigation of serous neoplasia Copyright (C) 2010 S Karger AG Basel”
“Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described

that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ( RTPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease.”
“A 54-year-old male presented to the vascular service for an urgent inpatient consultation. During an infusaport removal, the catheter was accidentally disconnected and lost intravascularly within the left subclavian vein, with the tip still in the right ventricle. We report on a novel technique for removing such intravascular foreign bodies (FBs), which will add a valuable technical option to our existing armamentarium regarding intracorporeal FB removal.”
“Background: Means to prevent and control intra-or postoperative bleeding remain a topic of utmost importance in thyroidectomy.

In the system, both the predator and prey are divided into immatu

In the system, both the predator and prey are divided into immature individuals and mature individuals by two fixed ages. It is assumed that the immature predators cannot attack preys, and the case of the mature predators attacking the immature preys is also ignored. Based on Mawhin’s coincidence MK-4827 degree, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of two positive periodic solutions of the system. An example is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the main results.”
“Genome-wide gene expression analysis using DNA microarray has a great advantage to identify

the genes or specific molecular cascades involved in mental diseases, including major depression and suicide. In the present study, we conducted DNA microarray analysis of major depression using postmortem prefrontal cortices. The gene expression patterns were compared between the controls and subjects with major depression. As a result, 99 genes were listed as the differentially expressed genes find more in major depression, of which several genes such as FGFR1, NCAM1, and CAMK2A were

of interest. Gene ontology analysis suggested an overrepresentation of genes implicated in the downregulation or inhibition of cell proliferation. The present results may support the hypothesis that major depression is associated with impaired cellular proliferation and plasticity. Comparison between the controls and suicide victims with major depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia was also conducted in the present study. Two genes, CAD and ATP1A3, were differentially expressed in the three comparisons in the same direction. Interestingly, these two genes were also included in the differentially expressed 99 genes in major depression. It may be worth investigating the genes in relation to suicide or major depression. (C) 2007 Z-DEVD-FMK datasheet Published by Elsevier Ireland

Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.”
“Objective: Conflicting data exist regarding pseudoaneurysm screening (PSA-S), initial angioembolization (IE), deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis (DVT-P), and activity limitation after hemodynamically stable blunt splenic injury (BSI). To determine whether there was consensus regarding BSI management, the multi-institutional trial committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) approved a survey of member practice patterns regarding BSI management.\n\nMethods: Over 2 months, AAST members were invited to participate in an online survey. Practice patterns and attitudes surrounding PSA-S, IE, DVT-P, and activity limitation after BSI were determined.\n\nResults: The response rate was 37.5%. Practice patterns varied by injury grade. Observation only was thought appropriate for grades I (94.4%) and II (84.6%) injuries. For grades III to V injuries, fewer and fewer respondents felt observation only was appropriate.

Unit of analysis was the referral As no evidence-based guideline

Unit of analysis was the referral. As no evidence-based guidelines exist for appropriateness of referral, we defined appropriateness as a balance of

issues with blinded physician judgment calls on anonymous random subsamples of patients admitted to hospital and those not admitted to determine appropriateness of referrals. Descriptive statistics were used, as well as chi(2) and t tests.\n\nRESULTS Out of 2473 licensed LTC beds, 606 residents were referred GSK1904529A to 1 of 3 EDs of the Hamilton Health Sciences hospitals, giving a referral rate of 24.5%. The average age of these LTC residents was 81.6 years, and 63.2% were women. Peak referral months were late winter; peak days were Tuesday and Friday. Time of arrival to the EDs was reported in 6-hour segments, with just over half (51.2%) of residents arriving during the day and one-third in the evening. Respiratory and cardiovascular problems comprised 48.6% of referrals. At arrival 67.3% of cases were deemed urgent or emergent. Wait times ranged from 0 to 60 hours, with 25% of residents seen within 1 hour, 44% within 2 hours, and 50% within 4 hours. Two-thirds (66.7%)

of residents were admitted to hospital and of these 62% stayed 1 week.\n\nCONCLUSION Our results agree with previous studies that cast doubt on the idea that LTC residents are “dumped” on EDs. Most referrals appeared appropriate as defined by criteria established by the physician team and BMS-777607 concentration given the number of hospital admissions, diagnostic tests, and treatments provided. Potentially, more acute care could be provided in LTC facilities with enhancement of services. Prospective studies could tell us more.”
“Bis(4-methylpiperidinecarbodithioato-S,S’)(N, N, N’,N’-tetramethylethylenediamine)zinc(II), [Zn(4-mpipdtc)(2) (TMED)] (1) and bis(4-methylpiperidinecarbodithioato-S,S’) (N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylethylenediamine) cadmium(II),

[Cd (4-mpipdtc)(2)(TMED)] (2) adducts were synthesized and characterized by IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectra. A single crystal X-ray structural analysis Selleck A-1210477 was carried out for complex 1. IR spectra of the complexes show the contribution of the thioureide form to the structures. Reduction in v(C-N)(thioureide) for the adducts is attributed to the change in coordination number from four to six. In the (13)C NMR spectra, the downfield shift of NCS(2) carbon signal for 2 (205.20 ppm) from the chemical shift value of 1 (202.05 ppm) in due to large size of cadmium ion in 2 experiences less steric effect involved in transformation from tetrahetral to octahedral. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 1 showed that zinc is in a distorted octahedral environment with a ZnS(4)N(2) chromophore. The Zn-S distances in 1 are longer than those in parent [Zn(4-mpipdtc)(2)].

LPS-induced upregulation of HO-1 was observed in AMs from 22-week

LPS-induced upregulation of HO-1 was observed in AMs from 22-week-old mice (1.8-fold), but not in AMs from 86-96-week-old mice in vitro. In summary, we demonstrated age-related defects in HO-1 induction in the whole lungs and in AMs in response to LPS.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiotherapy using Quizartinib mouse proton beam (PRT) for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.\n\nMethods and Materials: Sixty consecutive patients

who underwent PRT between May 1999 and July 2007 were analyzed. There were 42 males and 18 females, with a median age of 70 years (48-92 years). All but 1 patient had a single lesion with a median diameter of 45 mm (20-100 mm). Total PRT dose/fractionation was 76 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE)/20 fractions in 46 patients, 65 CGE/26 fractions in 11 patients, and 60 CGE/10 fractions in 3 patients. The risk

this website of developing proton-induced hepatic insufficiency (PHI) was estimated using dose-volume histograms and an indocyanine-green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15).\n\nResults: None of the 20 patients with ICG R15 of less than 20% developed PHI, whereas 6 of 8 patients with ICG R15 values of 50% or higher developed PHI. Among 32 patients whose ICG R15 ranged from 20% to 49.9%, PHI was observed only in patients who had received 30 CGE (V30) to more than 25% of the noncancerous parts of the liver (n = 5) Local progression-free

and overall survival rates at 3 years were 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80-99%) and 56% (95% CI, 43-69%), respectively. A gastrointestinal toxicity of Grade >= 2 was observed in 3 patients.\n\nConclusions: ICG R15 and V30 are recommended as useful predictors for the risk of developing PHI, which should be incorporated into multidisciplinary treatment plans for patients with this disease. (c) 2011 Elsevier Inc.”
“OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine acceptance in a minority community including correlates of vaccine hesitancy and refusal. We identified intervention points to increase H1N1 vaccine coverage.\n\nPATIENTS AND METHODS: Z-VAD-FMK cell line Minority parents and caregivers of children <= 18 years participated in a cross-sectional survey. Statistical analyses included bivariate correlations, exploratory factor analyses, internal-consistency assessment, and logistic regressions.\n\nRESULTS: The sample (N = 223) included mostly lower-income (71% [n = 159]) and black (66% [n = 147]) participants. Potential and actual receipt of pediatric H1N1 vaccination was low (36% [n = 80]). Pediatric H1N1 vaccine acceptance was associated with lack of insurance (odds ratio [OR]: 3.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-7.37]), perceived H1NI pediatric susceptibility (OR: 1.66 [95% CI: 1.41-1.95]), child vaccination prioritization in family (OR: 3.

With all weight-related factors in the model, only waist circumfe

With all weight-related factors in the model, only waist circumference was related to LBP in women. For women, the odds ratios of LBP

were 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 1.8) for a waist circumference of 80-87.9 cm and 1.8 ( 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.2) for a waist circumference of >= 88 cm compared with a waist circumference of < 80 cm. This association was independent of C- reactive protein, leptin, and adiponectin levels. The authors’ findings in a relatively young population suggest that abdominal obesity may increase the risk of VX-661 in vitro LBP in women.”
“The enzyme catalase catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide AZD1480 into oxygen and water. It is the main regulator of hydrogen peroxide metabolism. Hydrogen

peroxide is a highly reactive small molecule formed as a natural byproducts of energy metabolism. Excessive concentrations may cause significant damages to protein, DNA, RNA and lipids. Low levels in muscle cells, facilitate insulin signaling. Acatalasemia is a result of the homozygous mutations in the catalase gene, has a worldwide distribution with 12 known mutations. Increased hydrogen peroxide, due to catalase deficiency, plays a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Examination of Hungarian diabetic and acatalasemic patients showed that an increased frequency

of catalase gene mutations exists among diabetes patients. Inherited catalase deficiency may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially for females. Early onset of type 2 diabetes occurs with inherited catalase deficiency. Low levels of SOD and glutathione peroxidase could contribute to complications caused NVP-HSP990 by increased oxidative stress. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This minireview highlights the importance of cannabidiol (CBD) as a promising drug for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Actual pharmacological treatments for IBD should be enlarged toward the search for low-toxicityand low-cost drugs that may be given alone or in combination with the conventional anti-IBD drugs to increase their efficacy in the therapy of relapsing forms of colitis. In the past, Cannabis preparations have been considered new promising pharmacological tools in view of their anti-inflammatory role in IBD as well as other gut disturbances. However, their use in the clinical therapy has been strongly limited by their psychotropic effects. CBD is a very promising compound since it shares the typical cannabinoid beneficial effects on gut lacking any psychotropic effects.

A phylogenetic hypothesis, incorporating both parsimony-based cha

A phylogenetic hypothesis, incorporating both parsimony-based character analysis and stratigraphic ranges, of the genera within the Platycrinitidae

is presented.\n\nWith consideration of the type species, Platycrinites laevis Miller, 1821, Platycrinites sensu stricto is distinguished from Platycrinites sensu lato, which is used for species that cannot be assigned with confidence to any objectively defined genus. New genera are Artaocrinus n. gen., Collicrinus n. en., Elegantocrinus n. gen., and Laticrinus n. gen.; and Exsulacrinus Bowsher and Strimple, 1986 is designated a junior synonym of Platycrinites s.s. Collicrinus Shumardi BI 2536 molecular weight n. gen. and sp., Laticrinus oweni n. gen. and sp., and Laticrinus wachsmuthi n. gen. and sp. are described; and Platycrinites formosus approximatus (Miller and Gurley, 1896a) is designated a junior synonym of Platycrinites formosus (Miller and Gurley, 1895a), which is reassigned here to Collicrinus PCI-32765 mouse n. gen. Platycrinites s.s. now includes 14 species and species-level taxa, and 76 species are assigned to Platycrinites s.l. Ten species are designated nomina dubia, as are taxa based solely on columnals or pluricolumnals. Two species are designated nomina nuda, and two are transferred to

genera outside of the Platycrinitidae. In addition, twenty-seven species and four open-nomenclature taxa are each reassigned to a different genus.”
“Background Although road traffic injury is reported as the leading cause of work-related death in Australia, it is not clear, due to limitations in previous methods used, just how large a burden it is. Many organisations are unaware of the extent of work-related road traffic injury and, importantly, what can be done to reduce the burden. The proposed research will (i) estimate the prevalence of work-related road traffic injury and (ii) identify the organisational determinants associated

with work-related road traffic injury. Methods and design The current study is designed to enumerate the problem and identify the individual driver-level, the supervisor-level and organisational-level factors associated with work-related road traffic injury. The multilevel systems Selleck GSK1838705A protocol will involve a series of cross-sectional surveys administered to drivers of fleet vehicles (n=1200), supervisors of the drivers (n=1200) and senior managers (n=300) within the same organisation. Discussion The novel use of the multilevel systems protocol is critical to be able to accurately assess the specific determinants of driving safety within each context of an organisation. Results The results are expected to highlight that reducing injury in the workplace requires more than just individual compliance with safety procedures.

Support of this condition is difficult due to resistance to conve

Support of this condition is difficult due to resistance to conventional analgesics. The prognosis is sometimes poor with a significant death rate in the pediatric population (c) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

All rights reserved.”
“Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV-from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends VX-809 purchase this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO2. Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a P5091 order CO2/air mixture (5% CO2, 30% O-2 and 65% N-2) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function

following the step-wise increase in PaCO2 (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment

and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO2 occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation.”
“Pet owners may face numerous animal losses in a lifetime. Grief following pet loss is often misunderstood and devalued. Nurses are likely to encounter Cl-amidine clinical trial patients and families mourning the loss of a companion animal. This article outlines the grief process and offers practical suggestions for assisting those who are bereaved.”
“Background: Responsive deep brain stimulation (rDBS) has been recently proposed to block epileptic seizures at onset. Yet, long-term stability of brain responses to such kind of stimulation is not known.\n\nObjective: To quantify the neural adaptation to repeated rDBS as measured by the changes of anti-epileptic efficacy of bilateral DBS of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) versus auditory stimulation, in a rat model of spontaneous recurrent absence seizures (GAERS).\n\nMethods: Local field potentials (LFP) were recorded in freely moving animals during 1 h up to 24 h under automated responsive stimulations (SNr-DBS and auditory).

“Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of sedation

“Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs. midazolam for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia during the treatment of non-invasive ventilation (NIV).\n\nMethods The intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated in our hospital between March 2008 and August 2011 who had acute pulmonary edema and hyoxemia in NIV failure due to patient refusal to continue the NIV sessions (due to discomfort) were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups

by the random numerical table method. They were treated with either midazolam (29 cases) or dexmedetomidine (33 cases). The patients were sedated (Ramsay scale 2-3) by a continuous perfusion of midazolam or dexmedetomidine during the NIV AZD6738 clinical trial session. Cardiorespiratory and ventilatory parameters, the results HDAC inhibitor of the blood gas analysis, and

adverse events were prospectively recorded. The main outcome measure was the percentage of endotracheal intubation during NIV. Secondary endpoints included the duration of non-invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and adverse events.\n\nResults In both groups of patients, the expected sedative scores were obtained. The cardiorespiratory symptoms and signs (oxygenation index, pH value, and respiratory rate) were significantly improved in both groups. In the dexmedetomidine-treated group, the patients had a further decreased percentage of failure of NIV requiring endotracheal intubation (ETI) and a more prolonged mean time to ETI (p=0.042, p=0.024). Furthermore, when compared with the group treated with midazolam, the overall duration of mechanical ventilation and the duration of ICU hospitalization in the group treated with dexmedetomidine were markedly decreased, AZD1152 ic50 and weaning from mechanical ventilation was easier (p=0.010, p= 0.042). Despite the fact that more dexmedetomidine-treated patients developed bradycardia (18.2% vs. 0, p=0.016), no patients required an intervention or interruption of study drug infusion. Conversely, the incidence of respiratory infections and vomiting was lower in the dexmedetomidine-treated

patients (p=0.026, p=0.010).\n\nConclusion Dexmedetomidine led to a more desired level of awaking sedation, shortened the duration of mechanical ventilation and the length of the ICU stay, and further reduced the prevalence of nosocomial infection for NIV sedation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It appears to provide several advantages and safe control compared with the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonist midazolam.”
“Background: The focal adhesion protein p130Cas (Cas) activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways upon integrin or growth factor receptor ligation. Full-length Cas frequently promotes cell survival and migration, while its C-terminal fragment (Cas-CT) produced upon intracellular proteolysis is known to induce apoptosis in some circumstances.