1b, top) Generally, for AdV construction using the COS-TPC metho

1b, top). Generally, for AdV construction using the COS-TPC method, we isolated a single virus clone to avoid contamination of the parent Ad5 derived from the DNA-TPC or unexpected reassortants (27). Clones lacking the upstream loxP were unexpectedly obtained when using both pAxLEFZ15L and pAxLEFZ19L. This virus, named AxLEFZ (ΔL) (Fig. 1b, bottom right), was found to be identical to 15L and 19L, except for the deletion of the upstream loxP as determined using restriction analyses and sequencing. We considered that ΔL was generated by homologous recombination within the packaging domain (Fig. 1b). Thus, we used ΔL as a control virus in this work. However, this recombination appears to be

a rare event Alectinib because, once the virus genome obtains the terminal protein at the right end through the recombination of the large homology, the virus repairs its left terminal by adding a new terminal protein at the right end through a “pan-handle” structure (27, 29). The set of three LacZ-expressing AdV, 15L (AxLEFZ15L), 19L (AxLEFZ19L), and ΔL (AxLEFZ), (Fig. 2a, top left), is called the “LEFZ series” in this paper. For the competitor virus, we constructed AxCAGFP (Fig. 2a, top left), which expressed enhanced

green fluorescent protein (Takara Bio, Shiga, Japan) under the control of the CAG promoter, using the COS-TPC method. The AdV titer was calculated using the TCID50 using 293 cells (30). Briefly, 50μL of DMEM supplemented with 5% FCS were dispensed into each well of a 96-well plate, and eight rows of threefold serial dilution Y-27632 ic50 of the virus. Then, 3 × 105 of 293 cells was added to each well. The plate was incubated at 37°C and 50 μL of DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS was added to each well every 3 days. Twelve days later, the end-point if the cytopathic effect was determined by microscopy. The 293 cells were infected with 15L, 19L or ΔL at an MOI of 3 and with the competitor

virus at an MOI of 1 or 0.1 for 1 hr and then were cultured in a six-well plate. Three days after infection, the 293 cells were Montelukast Sodium harvested together with the medium. The cell suspension was sonicated for 2 min (30 s × 4 cycles) using a Bioruptor II sonicator (CosmoBio, Tokyo, Japan) at maximum power (200 W) and centrifuged at 1900 g using a Tomy TMP11 microcentrifuge rotor (Tomy, Tokyo, Japan) for 5 min at 4˚C. The supernatant was stored as the first viral stock. An aliquot (100 μL each) was used to infect 293 cells on a six-well plate, and the culture medium was obtained as the second viral stock. Similar virus passages were continued six times to obtain the seventh viral stock. To monitor the genome structure of the virus, the infected cells at each passage were centrifuged at 1900 g for 5 min at 4°C, and the total cell DNA together with the viral genome DNA was prepared according to the method of Saito et al. (31).

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