3.3 Exercise-dependent ischemia-induced GI distress Serious gut underperfusion often leads to shock-induced mucosal damage and invasion of gram-negative intestinal bacteria and/or their toxic constituents (endotoxins) into the blood circulation . Elevated plasma endotoxin concentrations were
found in 81% of ultramarathoners (90 km), with 2% presenting extremely high values . Reduced GI blood flow induced by strenuous exercise makes the gut mucosa susceptible to ischemic injury, increases mucosa permeability and enhances hidden blood loss, as well as the translocation of protective microbiota and endotoxin generation. It is known that mucosal ischemia depletes cellular ATP leading to cell death and mucosal inflammation [11, 38]. Hence, strenuous exercise and dehydration states would be the causes of GI symptoms reported NVP-BSK805 molecular weight by 70% of athletes, and gut ischemia would be the main cause of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and (blood) diarrhea . In an extensive literature review using an evidence-based approach, the risk factors for exercise-induced GI tract symptoms were dehydration (body weight loss
> 4% during or after exercise), being a female, younger age, high-intensity exercise, vertical impact sports and medicine use. Poor conditioning, dietary factors and previous abdominal surgery are risk factors with weak evidence that was not well supported . 4. Exercise-dependent rehydration Rapid fluid delivery from beverages intake is the goal of oral selleck rehydration
solutions and sports drinks . The goal of fluid intake is to consume more fluid orally than it is being lost in sweat. Extracellular fluid rehydration is best achieved with smaller fluid volumes and isotonic Vorinostat ic50 sodium solutions. Intracellular rehydration is best achieved with higher volumes and lower sodium (hypotonic) solutions. Hemodynamic responses (the optimization of cardiac output as estimated by heart rate and stroke volume) are similar with 100% or 150% PRKACG fluid replacement and with hypotonic and isotonic solutions. The addition of sodium and carbohydrates assists with intestinal absorption of water and permits more efficient fluid replacement than water alone . 4.1 Fluid volume The maximum rate of intestinal absorption is 0.5 L/hour when cycling at 85% VO2max . It was estimated that ~ 0.9L remained in the stomach and intestine at the end of exercise, and subjects complained about abdominal fullness. The intake of large volumes may not be advantageous , because no enhance in performance is observed [41, 42]. Fluid delivery during exercise represents the integration of GE and intestinal absorption. GE of liquids is regulated by the interaction of gastric volume and feedback inhibition, including nutrient-induced duodenal feedback.