A standardized European quality assurance program for tests to detect mutations in KRAS was proposed at the Third International Congress of Pathology, held by the European NVP-LDE225 solubility dmso Society of Pathology (ESP) in Barcelona in May 2008. This program
is focused on achieving optimal accuracy and proficiency across the European Union . However, there are many methods in current use, some of which are only employed by individual laboratories and are not commercially available. These typically include sequencing assays  and gel-based DNA conformation assays [13, 14]. Some of the commercial assays for detecting mutations in the KRAS gene have not yet been validated for clinical use (i.e.: Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization – Invigene®, KRAS mutation test kit – EntroGen®). At the time of writing, only the TheraScreen® kit sold by QiaGen, the KRAS LightMix®
kit sold by TIB MolBiol, and the K-ras StripAssay® sold by ViennaLab had received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark certifying them as being suitable for diagnostic use in the clinic under the terms of the European IVD Directive Roxadustat cell line 98/79/EC. In order to assess the specificity, sensitivity, cost, and working time of five frequently used methods for detecting mutations in KRAS, we performed parallel tests using DNA extracted from 131 frozen NSCLC tissue samples. The methods examined were Sanger cycle sequencing, Pyrosequencing, High-resolution melting analysis (HRM), and the CE-marked TheraScreen DxS and K-ras StripAssay kits. Our data demonstrate that there are important differences between these methods, which should be considered in routine clinical testing for KRAS mutations. Methods Pathological assessment The experimental research presented in this manuscript was performed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration according to the study ethics proposal approved by Ethical Board of Palacky University in Olomouc. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients for
the use of the collected samples in the research projects which see more includes studies for publication of this report or any accompanied images. Diagnosis of NSCLC was initially performed at the time of surgery and later confirmed from leftover by histological subtyping performed by experienced pathologist. All samples were found to contain more than 70% of tumour cells from at least 200 cells. DNA extraction from cell lines and primary tumor samples Genomic DNA was extracted from 131 frozen Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tissue specimens removed from patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer. Tissue was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after surgery and stored at −80°C until analyzed. Cell lines with specific KRAS mutations were obtained from the American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, MA) and cultured according to ATCC instructions.