Although there have been attempts to predict VTE risk through the

Although there have been attempts to predict VTE risk through the evaluation of changes occurring

in the coagulatory system, these surrogate parameters are not generally accepted. However, analysis of these parameters is required by the guidelines for the development of steroidal contraceptives [18]. In general, Vistusertib supplier the effect of third-generation COCs on coagulatory mechanisms appears to be minimal, reflecting a balance between the stimulation of both (pro)coagulant and fibrinolytic factors [19]. Despite these findings, there are data to suggest that third-generation COCs can have a substantial effect on hemostatic balance, and may result in a prothrombotic state among users. Indeed, there are reports that women using third-generation COCs are significantly CYT387 manufacturer less sensitive to activated protein C (APC) than women using second-generation formulations (p < 0.001); it could be speculated that these differences may correlate with a higher risk of thrombosis in third-generation COC users [20]. Furthermore, for both third- and second-generation formulations, COC-induced increases in the activity of (pro)coagulatory factors are not always balanced by increased biological levels of coagulation inhibitors [21]. There is some indication that transdermal delivery of hormones may reduce the risk of VTE associated with COC use [22], although the supporting data are limited, and

results from clinical trials are conflicting [16, 23–25]. To further investigate the effect of transdermal delivery on hemostatic parameters, we conducted an open-label, randomized, crossover study of the novel Bayer

Sitaxentan patch in comparison to a monophasic COC containing 0.03 mg EE and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel. 2 Materials and Methods 2.1 Objectives and Study Design The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the novel Bayer patch (patch size 11 cm2; containing 0.55 mg EE and 2.1 mg gestodene per patch) on hemostasis parameters in a 21-day regimen over a treatment period of three cycles, compared with a standard, monophasic COC containing 0.03 mg EE and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel per tablet (Microgynon®, Bayer Healthcare AG, Germany). Secondary objectives included assessment of safety, click here contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, and cycle control. This was an open-label, randomized, crossover study conducted at a single center in Germany ( identifier: NCT00933179). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the International Conference on Harmonisation Guideline on Good Clinical Practice, and local laws. The design of the study adheres to the requirements of the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use guideline on clinical investigation of steroid contraceptives in women (EMEA/CPMP/EWP/519/98 Rev1) [18]. The study protocol was approved by a competent Ethics Committee in Berlin, Germany.

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