Altogether these data suggest that RyR1 depletion in skeletal mus

Altogether these data suggest that RyR1 depletion in skeletal muscle is one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease as already reported in recessive forms of RYR1-related congenital myopathy [19,28,38–40]. In conclusion, we have identified a specific clinical AZD0530 mw and histological phenotype

associated with recessive RYR1 mutations. Our data clearly show that in this group of patients, the histological phenotype shares features traditionally described in different forms of congenital myopathies, namely centronuclear and core myopathies. They strongly support the idea that the presence of disorganized myofibrillar areas with irregular borders in muscle biopsies from patients with clinical manifestations of congenital myopathy are likely to be due to RYR1 mutations, even in the presence of numerous fibres with internalized nuclei. Hence, this peculiar morphological pattern should be consistently associated with the subgroup of ‘congenital myopathies with cores’. This will improve molecular diagnosis and consequently, genetic counselling and the prognosis given to patients. We are grateful to Professor S. Lyonnet for giving us DNA samples of patient 1. We thank Dr Anna Buj-Bello; Dr R. Peat and Dr Y. Corredoira for proof-reading of the manuscript

and helpful advice and L. Manéré, G. Brochier, E. Lacène, M. Beuvin, M.T. Viou, P. Thérier and S. Drouhin for their excellent technical help. “
“R. Bolea, P. Hortells, I. Martín-Burriel, find more A. Vargas, B. Ryffel, M. Monzón and J. J. Badiola (2010) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology36, 300–311 Consequences of dietary manganese and copper imbalance on neuronal apoptosis in a selleck screening library murine model of scrapie Aims: Copper and manganese levels are altered in mice both lacking PrPc and prion-infected brains.

The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of manganese and copper imbalance on neuronal apoptosis in a scrapie-infected Tga20 mouse model. Methods: Immunoreactivities for the apoptotic proteins Bax and active caspase-3 were evaluated in nine regions of the brain of scrapie-infected and control Tga20 mice treated with one of several diets: depleted cooper (−Cu), loaded manganese (+Mn), depleted copper/loaded manganese (−Cu+Mn) and regular diet. Immunohistochemical determination of NeuN was used to detect possible neuronal loss. Results: Intracellular Bax detection was significantly decreased in animals fed with modified diets, particularly in those treated with copper-depleted diets. A decrease in active caspase-3 was primarily observed in animals fed with enhanced manganese diets. Our results show that the −Cu, −Cu+Mn and +Mn diets protected against apoptosis in scrapie-infected mice. However, NeuN immunolabelling quantification revealed that no diet was sufficient to arrest neuronal death.

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