(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Objective The

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to assess analgesic and adjuvant anesthetic effects of submucosal tramadol after third molar extraction.

Study Design. In this double-blind, split-mouth, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover investigation, 52 patients underwent mandibular third molar extraction under local anesthesia. Surgical side was randomly assigned to submucosal 2 mL 100

mg tramadol injection (group T) or normal saline solution (group CYT387 P) immediately after surgery. Anesthetic blockade duration, time of intake and amount of analgesic rescue drug, and postoperative pain intensity were recorded immediately after anesthesia cessation and 1, 8, 21, 18, and 72 hours after surgery. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests.

Results. Anesthetic blockade duration between groups was similar. Group T took significantly less rescue drug after 72 hours (P = .008). Time elapsed before first intake of rescue drug was longer (P = .006),

and pain intensity was significantly lower (P = .001) in PRIMA-1MET cost group T.

Conclusions. Submucosal tramadol injection after oral surgery improved postoperative analgesia, but did not extend anesthetic action duration.”
“OBJECTIVE: To characterize precursors for late preterm birth in singletons and incidences of neonatal morbidities and perinatal mortality by gestational age and precursor.

METHODS: Using retrospective observational data, we compared 15,136 gestations born late preterm with 170,593 deliveries between 37 0/7 and 41 6/7 weeks. We defined the following categories of precursors for late preterm delivery: “”spontaneous labor,”" “”premature rupture of the membranes (preterm PROM),”" “”indicated”" delivery, and “”unknown.”" Incidences of neonatal morbidities were calculated

according to category of this website precursor stratified by gestational age at delivery. Neonatal morbidities and mortality associated with potentially avoidable deliveries (eg, “”soft”" precursors or elective) were compared between late preterm births and neonates born at 37-40 weeks.

RESULTS: Late preterm birth comprised 7.8% of all births and 65.7% of preterm births. Percentages of precursors were 29.8% spontaneous labor, 32.3% preterm PROM, 31.8% “”indicated”" (obstetric, maternal, or fetal condition), and 6.1% unknown. Different precursors for delivery were associated with varying incidences of neonatal morbidity. One in 15 neonates delivered late preterm for “”soft”" or elective precursors, and neonatal morbidity and mortality were increased compared with delivery at or after 37 weeks for these same indications.

CONCLUSION: A significant number of late preterm births were potentially avoidable. Elective deliveries should be postponed until 39 weeks of gestation.

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