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Authors’ contributions YC participated in the discovery and characterization of Carocin S2, and he wrote this manuscript. JL participated in protein purification. HP participated in manuscript preparation. KC supported the Pcc strain SP33 and for insightful discussion JNK-IN-8 ic50 and guidance. DY conceived of the study, participated in its design, and corrected the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of

the manuscript.”
“Background Oxygen is important for many organisms; because of its high redox potential, it is a common electron acceptor in cellular respiration. However, diverse metabolic reactions generate cell-damaging reactive oxygen species such as superoxide (O2 -) and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. In response, cells have developed oxidative stress defense systems to protect themselves from oxidative damage. Microorganisms are classified into three selleck screening library large categories–aerobic, anaerobic, and microaerophilic–on the basis of their ability to use oxygen as an electron acceptor during ATP generation. Microaerophiles show optimal growth at 2% to 10% O2, but Wortmannin cannot survive under the normal atmospheric level of O2 [1]. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a gram-negative human pathogen that resides in the mucus layer of the stomach. It affects more than half of the world’s population and is often associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer [2, 3]. Numerous studies have shown that Hp uses both aerobic respiration and fermentation pathways. Complete genome sequencing and studies of Hp

metabolism and physiology indicate that Hp uses glucose as its primary energy Reverse transcriptase and carbon source by the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways [4–9]. Depending on culture conditions, Hp anaerobically produces lactate and acetate from pyruvate or aerobically produces acetate or CO2 [4, 7, 10, 11]. Hp metabolizes pyruvate by the anaerobic mixed acid fermentation pathway, accumulating alanine, lactate, acetate, formate, and succinate [12]. It also uses the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which appears to be a noncyclic, branched pathway characteristic of anaerobic metabolism that produces succinate in the reductive dicarboxylic acid branch and α-ketoglutarate in the oxidative tricarboxylic acid branch [13]. Hp constitutively expresses the aerobic respiratory chain with a cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase as the terminal oxidase [14].

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