“Early palliative intervention in advanced cancer patients with metastatic
non-small-cell-lung cancer has been shown to improve survival time. Possibly, palliative intervention at the time of outpatient care further improves patient survival selleck products time.\n\nWe performed a comparative study of late and early referrals of patients with advanced cancer to clarify the appropriate time for palliative intervention and the improvement in survival time.\n\nTwo hundred and one cancer patients, all since deceased, who were treated in our department over a period of 4 years were divided into two groups: patients who experienced outpatient services for 7 days (late referral group, 64 patients) and Selleck AZD8931 those who experienced outpatient services for 7 days (early referral group, 137 patients). Survival time, duration of chemotherapy and post-progression survival were retrospectively analyzed through examination of medical records.\n\nSurvival time of the early referral group was longer than that of the late referral group in all the cases (19.0 vs. 6.5 months, P 0.001). Survival time in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer was 3.5 and 14.0 months (P 0.010) and 16.5 and 20.9 months (P 0.039) in advanced colorectal
cancer, respectively. There was no significant difference in gastric cancer (P 0.310). Post-progression survival in each group was 0.7 and 2.7 months (P 0.018) in non-small-cell lung cancer.\n\nThe results of this study suggested that early outpatient referral and palliative intervention leads to improvement of the outcome
in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. A prospective comparative study is warranted.”
“Background: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) are used in a wide range of applications. Kinase Inhibitor Library datasheet However, most commonly used estimators for the ICC are known to be subject to bias.\n\nMethods: Using second order Taylor series expansion, we propose a new bias-corrected estimator for one type of intraclass correlation coefficient, for the ICC that arises in the context of the balanced one-way random effects model. A simulation study is performed to assess the performance of the proposed estimator. Data have been generated under normal as well as non-normal scenarios.\n\nResults: Our simulation results show that the new estimator has reduced bias compared to the least square estimator which is often referred to as the conventional or analytical estimator. The results also show marked bias reduction both in normal and non-normal data scenarios. In particular, our estimator outperforms the analytical estimator in a non-normal setting producing estimates that are very close to the true ICC values.