FlowJo software (Tree Star, Ashland, OR, USA) was used for analys

FlowJo software (Tree Star, Ashland, OR, USA) was used for analyses.

One percent false-positive events were accepted throughout the experiments. Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR).  Twenty thousand DC were cultured ABT-263 research buy with 2 × 105 allogeneic PBMC depleted for monocytes and stained with CFDA-SE (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). To improve the survival of the T cells, IL-2 (50 U/ml) and IL-7 (10 ng/ml; both from ImmunoTools) were added on the first day of coculture. On the fifth day of incubation, cells were harvested and analysed on a FACS Canto I flow cytometer. Cytokine measurements.  The level of secreted IL-12p70 was measured in the conditioned medium by a sandwich ELISA according to the manufacturer’s protocol (BioLegend, San Diego, CA, USA). Statistical analyses.  Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism, and the results were analysed using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Dunn’s post hoc test was used for comparisons of median values. The difference between groups was considered significant selleck chemical if P < 0.05. Five different concentrations of bromelain (100, 50, 25,

10 and 5 μg/ml) were tested to identify the bromelain concentration that would be the best stimulus. After 24 h of stimulation, cells were harvested and analysis of the cell size and viability revealed that cells stimulated with 25 μg/ml bromelain had the largest cell size and showed

the highest viability of the different concentrations tested, comparable with cells stimulated with the cytokine cocktail (cytokine DC) (data not shown). DC matured with 100 μg/ml bromelain showed very low viability; we therefore did not include this concentration RG7420 in vivo in further experiments. Phenotypic analyses showed a concentration-dependent upregulation of costimulatory molecules and maturation markers after stimulation with bromelain (Fig. 1). The generated cells were all CD14− (not shown), confirming that the generation of DC had been successful. CD80 was higher expressed on bromelain-stimulated cells than on cytokine DC. In addition to CD80/CD86 expression, the costimulatory molecule CD40 is required for the induction of powerful T cell activation [25]. Stimulation with bromelain resulted in higher median fluorescence intensity (MFI) for CD40 compared with cytokine DC (Fig. 1D). Expression of the migration marker CCR7 was not increased upon bromelain treatment, but CD38 surface expression was significantly upregulated when compared with cytokine DC (Fig. 1C). None of the groups secreted high amounts of IL-12p70; however, cells stimulated with 25 μg/ml bromelain secreted slightly elevated amounts of IL-12p70 compared with cytokine DC (median 14.3 to 0 pg/ml, n = 7, data not shown).

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