“Hereditary angiooedema (HAE) is a life-threatening diseas

“Hereditary angiooedema (HAE) is a life-threatening disease with poor clinical phenotype correlation with its causal mutation in the C1 inhibitor (SERPING1) gene. It is characterized by substantial symptom variability even in affected members of the same family. Therefore, it is likely that genetic factors outside the SERPING1 gene have an influence on disease manifestation. In this study, functional polymorphisms in genes with a possible disease-modifying effect, B1 and B2 bradykinin receptors (BDKR1, BDKR2), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL2), were analysed in 36 unrelated HAE patients. The same analysis was carried out in 69 HAE patients regardless of their

familial relationship. No significant influence Selleckchem Pexidartinib of the studied polymorphisms in the BDKR1, BDKR2, ACE and MBL2 genes on GSK-3 inhibition overall disease severity, localization and severity of particular attacks, frequency of oedema episodes or age

of disease onset was detected in either group of patients. Other genetic and/or environmental factors should be considered to be responsible for HAE clinical variability in Caucasians. Hereditary angiooedema (HAE) results from a genetic deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1 Inh). It is characterized by recurrent, acute attacks of localized subcutaneous or submucosal oedema [1]. The most severe clinical manifestations include potentially life-threatening laryngeal oedema and gastrointestinal symptoms that may imitate acute abdominal emergency. Subcutaneous limb and face tissue and, on rare

occasions, urogenital tract mucous membranes may also be affected. Markedly decreased expression of C1 Inh in the plasma is called type I HAE, while expression of a dysfunctional C1 Inh protein, together with decreased levels of normal protein, is termed type II HAE [2]. Even though the genetic basis of HAE has been clearly identified and almost CYTH4 200 mutations in the C1 inhibitor (SERPING1) gene have been described so far [3, 4] (http://hae.enzim.hu), oedema pathogenesis has not been yet fully understood. Patients usually become symptomatic during childhood or adolescence and demonstrate variability in the frequency and severity of oedema episodes. The frequency of attacks is neither correlated with the age of onset nor with their localization or severity and is highly variable even among family members carrying the same mutation in the SERPING1 gene [2, 5, 6]. The character and location of mutation can only provide evidence for HAE type I and II, but it provides no information on the clinical course of the disease. A limited genotype–phenotype correlation has been described in some splicing-defective mutations that seemed to be associated with a milder course of the disease. A recent family-based study indicated that the c.−21t/c polymorphic variant at the second base of exon 2 in the SERPING1 gene, when present in a non-mutated allele, may confer an increased risk of severe forms of the disease [7].

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