In contrast, using Western blotting

In contrast, using Western blotting Dabrafenib purchase in this study we found that TLR-4 expression specifically in AS T cells was suppressed by let-7i. As TLR-4 is expressed abundantly on monocytes, we proposed that the decreased expression of TLR-4 in AS T cells could be masked easily by the abundant amount of TLR-4 on monocyte or other cell types from AS patients. Moreover, in the cell transfection studies, we found that there were discrepancies between mRNA and protein expressions of TLR-4

due to the effect of let-7i (Figs 6 and 7). As TLR-4 is the prime cellular pattern recognition sensor for microbial pathogens, TLR-4 activation via LPS leads to production of proinflammatory Ku-0059436 mouse cytokines in innate immune systems [38]. Interestingly, TLR-4 is also expressed on T cells [39], which might have a different immunoregulatory

function in the adaptive immune system, as shown in our study. José et al. [33] have reported that LPS signalling through TLR-4 could suppress T cell receptor-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation in CD4+ T cells in the murine model. Similar to their findings, in this study we demonstrated that LPS could exert an inhibitory signal on the T cell response in humans. Clinical observations revealed that there was a link between AS development with chronic prostatitis in men or pelvic inflammatory disease in women. It is purposed that the microbe infection is from a source of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs)

involved in AS pathogenesis. These DAMPs could activate TLRs to elicit the inflammatory reaction and ectopic enchondral bone formation in AS spine [32]. Although bacterial infection such as Chlamydia could cause chronic arthritis [40], it is still premature to conclude that bacterial infection can cause AS [41]. Conversely, evidence suggests that AS disease activity became worse, following the different bacterial infections such as Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter and Chlamydia [42-46]. Although molecular mimicry between the bacterial components and self-peptides was considered to play a role [47], our results may provide an alternative explanation, that the bacterial LPS could suppress Smoothened IFN-γ production in activated normal T cells. However, this regulatory mechanism was abrogated by the over-expressed let-7i in AS T cells (Fig. 8a). IFN-γ is a key proinflammatory cytokine which has been shown to be elevated in serum from AS patients [48]. Although we found no correlation between let-7i and the mRNA expression of IFN-γ in AS patients (Fig. 9b), contradictory to the finding that let-7i may regulate IFN-γ production (Fig. 8b) it is possible that various factors, such as viral or bacterial infection, trigger IFN-γ gene expression to confound our results.

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