In the largest randomised trial [27] of thromboprophylactic thera

In the largest randomised trial [27] of thromboprophylactic therapy to prevent venous thromboembolism in patients with hip fracture, the incidence of venous thromboembolism(8.3% versus 19.1%) was significantly lower in the group of patients receiving subcutaneous fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily when compared to those receiving subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg daily. Despite superior efficacy, its main drawback is the high cost which hampers its wide clinical application. Unfractionated heparin Low-dose UFH (5,000 U subcutaneous administration twice daily) has been the agent [28] most check details frequently studied for thromboembolic

prophylaxis. Several studies have shown that UFH heparin significantly reduced the risk of deep venous thrombosis when compared to placebo in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery with a slight increase risk of post-operative bleeding. Low-molecular-weight heparin LMWH confers similar reduction Captisol purchase in the risk of thromboembolic disease when compared to low-dose UFH. A systematic review [29] of 31 trials involving 3,000 patients with hip fracture could not determine the superiority of either form of heparin. Recommended regimens for enoxaparin are 30 mg subcutaneously every 12 h or 40 mg once daily. LMWH selleck chemical are cleared principally by the renal route and their half-life is prolonged in patients with renal failure. The dosage of

enoxaparin must be adjusted for elderly patients who often have renal impairment. Studies of LMWH have reported that the incidence of post-operative bleeding is similar to bleeding rates observed with UFH. However, the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is lower with LMWH than UFH. Duration of thromboembolic prophylaxis At present, Interleukin-3 receptor it seems reasonable to continue prophylaxis until the patient

is fully ambulatory. Prophylaxis may be extended [26] for a longer duration for high-risk patients, e.g., those who developed prolonged immobility, previous history of venous thromboembolism, etc. New agents Oral direct thrombin inhibitors are emerging as new agents for anti-thrombotic therapy in patients with risk of thromboembolism. Dabigatran [30] is currently being investigated for prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis and thromboembolic disease in patients undergoing hip replacement surgery. Regional anaesthesia Patients with hip fracture can be put under general or regional anaesthesia for the corrective surgery. Certain precautions pertaining to regional anaesthesia need to be taken into account with regards to anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic agents. In patients with coronary artery stents, the use of regional anaesthesia must be carefully considered. Studies [31, 32] have shown that regional anaesthesia attenuates the hypercoagulable peri-operative state and also provides anti-platelet effects by decreasing platelet aggregation.

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