Magalhães et al.  found that H. pylori infection results in an increased expression of syndecan-4 when infections are sustained by CagA positive strains and provided in vitro evidence that CagA, but mainly buy Venetoclax CagE, is required to induce membrane-bound syndecan-4 expression. A global overview of the complexity of H. pylori OMPs gene expression was carried out by Odenbreit et al.  who studied the expression of eight OMPs (AlpA, AlpB, SabA, BabA, BabB, BabC, HP0227, OipA) in H. pylori isolates obtained
from the antrum of infected children. The hypothesis that, to adapt to a changing niche, H. pylori genome co-evolves with host response has been pursued by Giannakis et al. . In a genome-wide analysis, H. pylori isolates obtained from the gastric corpus of multiple patients with variable gastric pathology the authors found that isolates differed MEK inhibitor markedly between patients, but the H. pylori population within an individual was largely clonal and remained stable over a period of at least 4 years. By analyzing the transcriptome of infected gastric epithelial progenitors, the authors
identified Serpin-1, several protein tyrosine phosphatases and superoxide dismutase 2 among the highest upregulated genes, and Cdkn2c, a tumor suppressor gene, among the most strongly downregulated genes in H. pylori-infected patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and with gastric cancer, MCE but failed to find any new disease-associated gene. A genome-wide map of H. pylori transcriptional start sites (TSS) and operons was provided by Sharma et al. , which complemented genomic
sequence and global protein–protein interaction map of the H. pylori strain 26695. Uncoupling of polycistrons and genome-wide antisense transcription (27% of the primary TSS are also antisense TSS) contribute to the high complexity of H. pylori gene expression. Antisense TSS for 22/34 putative phase variable genes involved in LPS biosynthesis, surface structure and DNA restriction/modification were identified and this might well represent a new mechanism of controlling surface structure variations and host interactions. An increased proliferation not balanced by an increase in apoptosis has been postulated as a putative cause of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. Yan et al.  demonstrated both in vitro and in an in vivo mouse model that a rodent adapted H. pylori cag-positive strain activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the ADAM-17 mediated release of heparin-binding-EGF. EGFR activation in epithelial cells resulted in activation of Akt, decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression, the downstream targets that promote an anti-apoptotic response in H. pylori-infected epithelial cells. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in gastric adenocarcinoma samples from both mice and humans was induced by H. pylori in a time-dependent manner.