Nonetheless, there were many SNP related to DPR that were not ant

Nonetheless, there were many SNP related to DPR that were not antagonistic for MY. Accordingly, it should be possible to select for DPR without reducing MY. Of the 40 SNPs linearly related to DPR, only 11 were negatively associ ated with MY, FY, or PY. SNPs that affected DPR were also positively related with other fertility traits. Other studies have also shown a positive genetic selleck chemicals llc correlation among fertility traits. It is not surprising that these traits are affected by the SNPs associated with DPR. One determinant of DPR is CCR. In addition, PL depends in part on the probability of culling for reproduction. The equation to calculate NM includes DPR and PL. The fact that SNPs associated with DPR are also associated with HCR, CCR, PL and NM means that selection of genes that improve DPR are likely to improve other reproductive traits and traits that depend upon reproduction.

SNPs linked to traits in the current study that were previously linked to other traits are summarized in Table 13. Of the 17 genes with SNPs previously linked to fertility or close to SNPs related to fertility traits, 9 SNPs had MAF 5% and were not analyzed. Of the other 8, 2 were significantly associated with DPR and one tended to be. The exact SNP in CAST analyzed here was previously associated with DPR, PL, and NM. A dif ferent SNP in NLRP9 than the one studied here was as sociated with incidence of still birth. Another gene, FGF2, tended to have an association with DPR, with the AA genotype being superior to the GG genotype.

Previously, the AA genotype of FGF2 was as sociated with Cilengitide higher estimated relative conception rate in bulls although, surprisingly, associated with lower in vitro embryo development. Another SNP, in PGR, was previously associated with in vitro fertilization rate and development and in vivo fertilization and pregnancy rates, and while not significant, the GG genotype was superior to the CC genotype for DPR in agreement with the superior genotype seen earlier. A SNP in FSHR was previously associated with superovulation response and, while not significantly associated with DPR in the current study, was associated with HCR and PL. There was no significant effect of genotype for four other SNPs in genes previously associated with reproductive traits, including HSPA1A, associated with calving rate in beef cattle, IRF9, which was physically close to a SNP for interval to insemination, and STAT5A, associated with in vitro embryo development and sire concep tion rate.

Note that HSPA1A was significantly asso ciated with PL and NM and both of these traits depend upon reproductive function. The genes in the current study with SNPs that were associated with DPR participate in a wide range of physiological functions associated with reproductive pro cesses. Many function in the endocrine system, either in synthesis of hormones or in cell signaling.

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