rep-PCR Y27632 showed abundant polymorphism of fingerprinting. The strains were separated into different genotypic groups at a similarity coefficient of 0.76 using a UPGMA analysis. Interestingly, the strains with low or moderate virulence were clustered in one genogroup, whereas all HVSs isolated in Africa were segregated in another genogroup. These results suggest

that the virulence of Xcm was highly related to genotype and/or geoclimatic origin of the strains. Additionally, the HVSs could be divided into two subgroups at a similarity coefficient of 0.80, indicating the genetic diversity of HVSs. “
“Alternaria fungi are important plant pathogens. Here, we identified three species new to the Japanese mycoflora: Decitabine price Alternaria celosiae, Alternaria crassa and Alternaria petroselini. We proposed a new name for A. celosiae (E.G. Simmons & Holcomb) Lawrence, Park & Pryor, a later homonym of A. celosiae (Tassi) O. Săvul. To characterize these and a fourth morphological taxon, Alternaria alstroemeriae, which was recently added to Japan’s mycoflora, an integrated species concept was tested. We determined the host range of each isolate using inoculation tests and analysed its phylogenetic position using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA. The pathogenicity of our A. alstroemeriae isolate was strictly limited to Alstroemeria sp. (Alstroemeriaceae), but

the species was phylogenetically indistinguishable from other small-spored Alternaria. Alternaria celosiae on Celosia argentea var. plumosa (Amaranthaceae) was also pathogenic to Amaranthus tricolor, to Alternanthera paronychioides and weakly to Gomphrena globosa (all Amaranthaceae) and formed a clade with the former Nimbya celosiae. Alternaria crassa on Datura stramonium (Solanaceae) was also pathogenic to Brugmansia × candida and Capsicum annuum in Solanaceae, but not to other confamilial plants; phylogenetically it belonged to a clade of

large-spored species with filamentous beaks. Morphological similarity, phylogenetic relationship selleck and experimental host range suggested that A. crassa, Alternaria capsici and Alternaria daturicola were conspecific. Alternaria petroselini on Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae) was pathogenic to five species in the tribe Apieae as well as representatives of Bupleureae, Coriandreae, Seliaeae and Scandiceae in Apiaceae. Both phylogeny and morphology suggested conspecificity between A. petroselini and Alternaria selini. “
“Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthae grisea (Herbert) Borr. (anamorphe Pyricularia oryza Cav.) is a serious disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.). One method to overcome this disease is to develop disease resistant cultivars. Due to the genetic plasticity in the pathogen genome, there is a continuous threat to the effectiveness of the developed cultivars.

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