Results showed that 45 of the infants exhibited brief episodes of bradycardia at the onset of arm-restraint. Group comparisons showed infants exhibiting bradycardia to have greater Proton pump modulator emotional reactivity during the arm-restraint protocol, which included a shorter latency to cry, decreased orientation toward mother, increased escape attempts during restraint, greater intensity of crying, and longer duration of crying than non-bradycardiac infants. These findings suggest that bradycardia at the outset of a mild perturbation episode may signal infants’ attention to the emotional
content of novel dyadic interactions and the disruption of expectancies in ongoing interactions, leading them to become distressed more quickly, turn their attention away from mom, and attempt to escape the restraint with greater vigor. “
“Explanations of variability in long-term
recall typically appeal to encoding and/or retrieval processes. However, for well over a century, it has been apparent that for memory traces to be stored successfully, they must undergo Smoothened Agonist a post-encoding process of stabilization and integration. Variability in post-encoding processes is thus a potential source of age-related and individual variance in long-term recall. We examined post-encoding variability in each of two experiments. In each experiment, 20-month-old infants were exposed to novel three-step sequences in each of three encoding conditions: watch only, imitate, (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate and learn to criterion. They were tested for recall after 15 min (as a measure of the success of encoding) and either weeks (1, 2, or 3: Experiment 1) or days (1, 2, or 4: Experiment 2) later. In each experiment, differential relative levels of performance among the conditions were observed at the two tests. The results implicate post-encoding processes are a source of variance in long-term recall. “
“Halberda (2003) demonstrated that 17-month-old infants,
but not 14- or 16-month-olds, use a strategy known as mutual exclusivity (ME) to identify the meanings of new words. When 17-month-olds were presented with a novel word in an intermodal preferential looking task, they preferentially fixated a novel object over an object for which they already had a name. We explored whether the development of this word-learning strategy is driven by children’s experience of hearing only one name for each referent in their environment by comparing the behavior of infants from monolingual and bilingual homes. Monolingual infants aged 17–22 months showed clear evidence of using an ME strategy, in that they preferentially fixated the novel object when they were asked to “look at the dax.” Bilingual infants of the same age and vocabulary size failed to show a similar pattern of behavior.