T47D cells treated with 9 cis RA look enlarged and the lipid droplets are disposed like a red perinuclear ring. 9 cis RA induces the e pression of cIAP2 in breast cancer cells in a cell conte t dependent manner In order to understand the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of retinoic acid on Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries breast cancer cells, we treated several breast cancer cell lines for different times with 9 cis RA and analyzed by RNase protection assay the gene e pression levels of different key players in cell death and survival. Among the different proapop totic genes analyzed, we observed significant upregula tion of TRAIL and FAS mRNAs by 9 cis RA in H3396 cells. In T47D cells, we did not observe a significant change of FAS but TRAIL messen ger was upregulated at 6, 9 and 12 days.
Additionally, we analyzed the e pression of dif ferent members of the BCL2 family, as well as some members Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the apoptosis inhibitor proteins, IAPs. We did not observe significant changes in mRNA e pression of the antiapoptotic BCL2 family members tested in either H3396 or T47D cells. However, cIAP2, a known target of NF B, was strongly induced by 9 cis RA in T47D but not in H3396 cells. We found that induction of cIAP2 gene e pression by 9 cis RA is not restricted to T47D cells, since 9 cis GSK-3 RA was also able to induce cIAP2 in ZR 75 1 and SK BR 3 breast cancer cell lines. At the protein level, 9 cis RA induced cIAP2 in T47D but not in H3396 cells. Induction of cIAP2 gene e pression is a reversible process, since removal of 9 cis RA from cell culture media caused a time dependent reduction of cIAP2 gene e pression, reaching near basal levels after 9 days.
All together, these data show that 9 cis RA can induce in a cell conte t depen dent manner pro survival and pro apoptotic gene pro grams in breast cancer cells. 9 cis RA activates Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cIAP2 transcription through NF B response elements and induces in vivo recruitment of p65 and RAR Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to the cIAP2 promoter Transient transfection in SK BR 3 cells of a chimeric luciferase reporter gene driven by the cIAP2 promoter demonstrated that a 1. 4 kilobase sequence upstream of the transcription initiation site contains retinoic acid inducible elements.
Previously the presence of a gluco corticoid response element, four Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells binding sites, three potential binding sites for Activator Protein 1, two Interferon Response Elements and three NF B binding sites in the pro imal promoter of the cIAP2 gene have been predicted but sequence analysis did not show the presence of consensus retinoic acid response elements that could mediate stimulation by 9 cis RA. Promoter mapping initially narrowed the reti noic acid responsive sequence down to 174 base pairs, which in addition to the TATA bo , contains an Interferon Response Element and the NF B site 3.