The bulk modulus B(T, p) was adjusted as a function of pressure and temperature with the following polynomial: (3) Table 3 Density correlation coefficients and standard deviations ( σ ) for the base fluid (EG) and the nanofluids Base fluid A-TiO2/EG (wt.%) R-TiO2/EG (wt.%) 1.00 1.75 2.50 3.25 5.00 1.00 1.75 2.50 3.25 5.00 103·a (°C−1) 0.62714 0.62327 0.61646 0.62116 0.63558 0.64060 0.61708 0.61084 0.62243 0.62955 0.62042 106·b (°C−2) 0.35343 0.30347 0.38267 #Proteasome inhibition assay randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# 0.25865 0.17013 0.14365

0.38319 0.43431 0.24473 0.23998 0.32687 104·σ (cm3 g−1) 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.9 1.4 2.8 1.6 1.4 1.8 1.3 1.1 B(p ref ,T ref) (MPa) 2,875.23 2,813.30 3,016.52 2,732.87 2,840.25 2,798.17 2,796.391 2,782.86 2,744.918 2,619.262 2,865.778 −c (MPa °C−1) 9.1949 8.8432 6.1026 7.7217 10.4348 8.8384 9.8265 9.8347 10.4074 8.6823 5.4028 102·d (MPa °C−2) 0.3779 0.4173 −0.2270 0.5231 2.44 1.61 1.61 1.23 2.45 0.89114 −1.48 e 5.123 5.727 −1.559 11.030 7.262 9.430 8.211 13.951 10.066 17.127 3.220 −103 ·f (MPa−1) 57.3 −12.3 −49 −103.1 −50.9 108.5 50.8 190.2 71.4 187.5 12.3 104·σ* (cm3 g−1) 0.7 0.8 1.4 0.9 0.9 1.4 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 The values of B(p ref,T ref), c, d, e, and f were determined by fitting

Equation 1 to all the experimental data at pressures different than p ref by a least squares JNK-IN-8 price method using a Marquardt-Levenberg-type algorithm. For the base fluid and all the studied nanofluids, the standard deviations obtained with this correlation are lower than or equal to 1.4 × 10−4 cm3 g−1, and the coefficients are given in Table 3. Although viscosity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity are the main parameters involved in the calculation of the heat transfer rate of a nanofluid, the precise determination of density is also relevant because,

as commented Demeclocycline above, these properties may be quite different from those of the original pure fluid, and it can lead to erroneous mass balances. As we have pointed out, significant variations in density can be achieved when temperature, pressure, concentration, or the type of nanocrystalline structure are analyzed in detail. In order to check some conventional assumptions [3, 20], we have determined the ideal nanofluid density from the nanoparticle and base fluid densities according to [25]: (4) where ϕ is the volumetric fraction of nanoparticles and the subscripts np, 0, and nf refer to the nanoparticles, base liquid, and nanofluids, respectively. The densities of anatase and rutile titanium oxide are, respectively, 3.830 and 4.240 g cm−3[37]. With the aim to evaluate the goodness of this estimation, our experimental values were compared with those predicted using this equation.