of the pillars in consultancy was identified by Humpthreys, Richardson, Stenhouse, and Watkins (2010). The current study extended these findings through the identified expression of the interconnectivity through the ‘head up’ view as expressed Z-VAD-FMK clinical trial in systems work. This ‘head-up’ view is congruent with early conceptualizations of the role as a nurse who fulfills a cross-hospital, cross-area or regional role (Dickenson, 1993). The CNCs’ clinical experience, combined with active involvement in local, state, national or international committees and active immersion in a multidisciplinary team enabled by the flexibility to organize their work allowed effectiveness in systems remediation and systems rescue. It was this ‘systems work’ that was most strongly articulated as the factor that separated CNCs from other nursing roles. This was facilitated by the depth of their clinical experience, the flexibility of their work schedules and the advanced level of clinical
judgment that led to identification of risk and advanced problem solving. With regard to being recognized as having, and applying, a depth of clinical experience this finding is in line with the findings of the Jannings, Underwood, Almer, and Luxford (2010) Australian study of community nurses (n = 125), in which it was reported that the most common reasons for accessing CNCs was for such expert clinical knowledge and problem FXR agonist solving. Systems work was founded Osimertinib on a focus of the patient experience and this priority of clinical care for CNCs is well recognized (Baldwin et al., 2013 and Chiarella et al., 2007). Clinical care was a priority for our sample because of their belief in the primacy of patient well-being, their specialist skill set that filled previously unaddressed therapeutic opportunities and because patient-focused
activities provided possibilities for mentorship and incidental teaching. The ‘head-up’ orientation meant that the CNC clinical care was expressed in broad and creative ways that promoted earlier discharge, could reduce complications and facilitated multidisciplinary care models, as opposed to a focus on a single or allocated group of patients. The vision was longer term, rather than discrete episodes of care. The importance of this kind of senior nurse support of systems in reducing adverse outcomes has been recognized in past research (Duffield et al., 2007). System remediation occurred through quality activities and strategic thinking that could impact on patient flow, resource utilization and patient safety. Systems rescue was exhibited through a progressive and pre-emptive nursing perspective applied to complex clinical problems, and just-in-time service development.