We found that cotinine levels for daily betel quid use among women (95% CI = 218.6-350.0 ng/mL) were (1) similar to the levels for daily cigarette smoking in men (95% CI = 240.2-317.1 ng/mL) and (2) significantly higher than the levels for daily cigarette smoking in women (95% CI = 71.8-202.7 ng/mL). The 95% confidence range for these habits exceeded the threshold for addiction. Our findings from rural THZ1 Cambodia indicate that the typical betel quid habit among women supports the same level of nicotine addiction as the typical cigarette habit in men.”
“In typically outbreeding
species, females can avoid a reduction in offspring fitness by choosing unrelated sires. However, the kin selection model of mate choice suggests that it may be adaptive to mate with relatives to gain inclusive fitness benefits, especially in lekking species. Several studies have shown that females tend to mate with relatives, but the detailed behavioral data necessary to determine whether this reflects an active preference is difficult to acquire. We test the hypotheses that females actively preferred or avoided relatives in mate choice in satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus Galardin cell line violaceus), a
lekking species in which comprehensive observations of natural mate choice were obtained using automated video cameras positioned at bowers. We identified specific males that were sampled by individual females and assessed whether relatedness influenced their acceptance or rejection as mates. We found no consistent effect of relatedness on mate choice across years or among multiple stages of mate choice. In 2 of 6 years, females copulated with relatives at or above the half-sibling level significantly more often than expected, but this was
attributed to females searching for mates in areas populated by relatives, and not to an active preference for relatives. Furthermore, we found no evidence for inbreeding avoidance through mate choice discrimination or sex-biased selleck products dispersal.”
“BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate epidurography contrast patterns in fluoroscopically guided cervical interlaminar epidural injections using the midline approach.\n\nMETHODS: All epidural injections were performed at the C6-7 level in the prone position. Epidurography was performed using a fixed amount of iotrolan 240 mg I/mL (1, 2, 3 mL).\n\nRESULTS: The rate of ventral. epidural spread was 56.7% in Group A (1 mL), 90% in Group B (2 mL), and 93.3% in Group C (3 mL).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Two milliliters of contrast solution can provide optimal dispersion of contrast in a ventral and longitudinal spread.”
“Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of waist circumference and body weight with circulating markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and hepatic function in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).